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Transcript of Around London
The British Museum
The Houses of Parliament
The Palace of Westminster is the meeting place of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Commonly known as the Houses of Parliament after its tenants, the Palace lies on the Middlesex bank of the River Thames in the City of Westminster, in central London. Its name, which derives from the neighbouring Westminster Abbey, may refer to either of two structures: the Old Palace, a medieval building complex that was destroyed by fire in 1834, and its replacement New Palace that stands today. For ceremonial purposes, the palace retains its original style and status as a royal residence.
The first royal palace was built on the site in the eleventh century, and Westminster was the primary London residence of the Kings of England until a fire destroyed much of the complex in 1512. After that, it served as the home of Parliament, which had been meeting there since the thirteenth century, and the seat of the Royal Courts of Justice, based in and around Westminster Hall. In 1834, an even greater fire ravaged the heavily rebuilt Houses of Parliament, and the only structures of significance to survive were Westminster Hall, the Cloisters of St Stephen's, the Chapel of St Mary Undercroft and the Jewel Tower.
The British Museum is a museum in London dedicated to human history and culture. Its permanent collection, numbering some 8 million works, is among the largest and most comprehensive in existence and originates from all continents, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginnings to the present.
The British Museum was established in 1753, largely based on the collections of the physician and scientist Sir Hans Sloane. The museum first opened to the public on 15 January 1759 in Montagu House in Bloomsbury, on the site of the current museum building. Its expansion over the following two and a half centuries was largely a result of an expanding British colonial footprint and has resulted in the creation of several branch institutions, the first being the British Museum (Natural History) in South Kensington in 1887. Some objects in the collection, most notably the Elgin Marbles from the Parthenon, are the objects of intense controversy and of calls for restitution to their countries of origin.
Piccadilly Circus is a road junction and public space of London's West End in the City of Westminster, built in 1819 to connect Regent Street with the major shopping street of Piccadilly. In this context, a circus, from the Latin word meaning "circle", is a round open space at a street junction.
Piccadilly now links directly to the theatres on Shaftesbury Avenue, as well as the Haymarket, Coventry Street (onwards to Leicester Square), and Glasshouse Street. The Circus is close to major shopping and entertainment areas in the West End. Its status as a major traffic intersection has made Piccadilly Circus a busy meeting place and a tourist attraction in its own right. The Circus is particularly known for its video display and neon signs mounted on the corner building on the northern side, as well as the Shaftesbury memorial fountain and statue of Eros. It is surrounded by several noted buildings, including the London Pavilion and Criterion Theatre. Directly underneath the plaza is Piccadilly Circus tube station, part of the London Underground system.
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic, church in the City of Westminster, London, located just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is one of the most notable religious buildings in the United Kingdom and is the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English and, later, British monarchs. The abbey is a Royal Peculiar and between 1540 and 1550 had the status of a cathedral.
According to a tradition first reported by Sulcard in about 1080, a church was founded at the site (then known as Thorn Ey (Thorn Island)) in the 7th century, at the time of Mellitus (d. 624), a Bishop of London. Construction of the present church was begun in 1245, on the orders of Henry III.
Since 1066, when Harold Godwinson and William the Conqueror were crowned, the coronations of English and British monarchs have been held here. Since 1100, there have been at least 16 royal weddings at the abbey. Two were of reigning monarchs (Henry I and Richard II), although before 1919 there had been none for some 500 years.
10 Downing Street
10 Downing Street, colloquially known in the United Kingdom as "Number 10", is the headquarters of Her Majesty's Government and the official residence and office of the First Lord of the Treasury, an office now invariably held by the Prime Minister.
Situated in Downing Street in the City of Westminster, London, Number 10 is one of the most famous addresses in the world. Over three hundred years old, the building contains about one hundred rooms. There is a private residence on the third floor and a kitchen in the basement. The other floors contain offices and numerous conference, reception, sitting and dining rooms where the Prime Minister works, and where government ministers, national leaders and foreign dignitaries are met and entertained. There is an interior courtyard and, in the back, a terrace overlooking a garden of 0.5 acres (2,000 m2). Adjacent to St. James's Park, Number 10 is near to Buckingham Palace, the official London residence of the British monarch, and the Palace of Westminster, the meeting place of both houses of parliament.
Originally three houses, Number 10 was offered to Sir Robert Walpole by George II in 1732. Walpole accepted on the condition that they be a gift to the office of First Lord of the Treasury rather than to him personally. Walpole commissioned William Kent to join the three houses together. It is this larger house that is known today as "Number 10 Downing Street".
The Barbican Arts Centre
The Barbican Centre is a performing arts centre in the City of London and is the largest of its type in Europe. The Centre hosts classical and contemporary music concerts, theatre performances, film screenings and art exhibitions. It also houses a library, three restaurants, and a conservatory. The London Symphony Orchestra and the BBC Symphony Orchestra are based in the Barbican Centre's concert hall.
The Barbican Centre is owned, funded, and managed by the City of London Corporation, the third-largest arts funder in the United Kingdom. It was built as The City's gift to the nation at a cost of £161 million (equivalent to £400 million in 2007), and opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 3 March 1982.
Buckingham Palace is the official London residence and principal workplace of the British monarch. Located in the City of Westminster, the palace is a setting for state occasions and royal hospitality. It has been a focus for the British people at times of national rejoicing and crisis.Originally known as Buckingham House, the building which forms the core of today's palace was a large townhouse built for the Duke of Buckingham in 1705 on a site which had been in private ownership for at least 150 years. It was subsequently acquired by George III in 1761 as a private residence for Queen Charlotte, and known as "The Queen's House". During the 19th century it was enlarged, principally by architects John Nash and Edward Blore, forming three wings around a central courtyard. Buckingham Palace finally became the official royal palace of the British monarch on the accession of Queen Victoria in 1837. The last major structural additions were made in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including the East front, which contains the well-known balcony on which the royal family traditionally congregates to greet crowds outside. However, the palace chapel was destroyed by a German bomb in World War II; the Queen's Gallery was built on the site and opened to the public in 1962 to exhibit works of art from the Royal Collection.
Trafalgar Square is a public space and tourist attraction in central London, United Kingdom, built around the area formerly known as Charing Cross. It is in the borough of the City of Westminster. At its centre is Nelson's Column, which is guarded by four lion statues at its base. There are a number of statues and sculptures in the square, with one plinth displaying changing pieces of contemporary art. The square is also used for political demonstrations and community gatherings, such as the celebration of New Year's Eve.
The name commemorates the Battle of Trafalgar (1805), a British naval victory of the Napoleonic Wars over France. The original name was to have been "King William the Fourth's Square", but George Ledwell Taylor suggested the name "Trafalgar Square"
St. Paul's Cathedral
St Paul's Cathedral, London, is a Church of England cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of London and mother church of the Diocese of London. It sits at the top of Ludgate Hill, the highest point in the City of London. Its dedication to Paul the Apostle dates back to the original church on this site, founded in AD 604. The present church, dating from the late 17th century, was designed in the English Baroque style by Sir Christopher Wren. Its construction, completed within Wren's lifetime, was part of a major rebuilding program which took place in the city after the Great Fire of London
The cathedral is one of the most famous and most recognisable sights of London, with its dome, framed by the spires of Wren's City churches, dominating the skyline for 300 years. At 365 feet (111 m) high, it was the tallest building in London from 1710 to 1962, and its dome is also among the highest in the world. In terms of area, St Paul's is the second largest church building in the United Kingdom after Liverpool Cathedral.
Madame Tussauds is a wax museum in London with branches in a number of major cities. It was founded by wax sculptor Marie Tussaud and was formerly known as "Madame Tussaud's"; the apostrophe is no longer used. Madame Tussauds is a major tourist attraction in London, displaying waxworks of historical and royal figures, film stars, sports stars and infamous murderers. Madame Tussauds is owned an operated by Merlin Entertainments.
The National Gallery
The National Gallery is an art museum on Trafalgar Square in London. Founded in 1824, it houses a collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900. The Gallery is an exempt charity, and a non-departmental public body of the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. Its collection belongs to the public of the United Kingdom and entry to the main collection is free of charge. It is the fifth most visited art museum in the world, after the Musée du Louvre, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the British Museum and Tate Modern.The present building, the third to house the National Gallery, was designed by William Wilkins from 1832–8. Only the façade onto Trafalgar Square remains essentially unchanged from this time, as the building has been expanded piecemeal throughout its history. Wilkins's building was often criticised for its perceived aesthetic deficiencies and lack of space; the latter problem led to the establishment of the Tate Gallery for British art in 1897. The Sainsbury Wing, an extension to the west by Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown, is a notable example of Postmodernist architecture in Britain. The current Director of the National Gallery is Nicholas Penny.
The London Eye is a giant Ferris wheel on the South Bank of the River Thames in London, England. The entire structure is 135 metres (443 ft) tall and the wheel has a diameter of 120 metres (394 ft).
It is the tallest Ferris wheel in Europe, and the most popular paid tourist attraction in the United Kingdom, visited by over 3.5 million people annually. When erected in 1999 it was the tallest Ferris wheel in the world, until surpassed first by the 160 m (520 ft) Star of Nanchang in 2006 and then the 165 m (541 ft) Singapore Flyer in 2008. Supported by an A-frame on one side only, unlike the taller Nanchang and Singapore wheels, the Eye is described by its operators as "the world's tallest cantilevered observation wheel". It offered the highest public viewing point in the city  until it was superseded by the 245-metre (804 ft) observation deck on the 72nd floor of The Shard, which opened to the public on 1 February 2013.
The London Eye, or Millennium Wheel, was officially called the British Airways London Eye and then the Merlin Entertainments London Eye. Since 20 January 2011, its official name is the EDF Energy London Eye following a three-year sponsorship deal.
The London Eye adjoins the western end of Jubilee Gardens (previously the site of the former Dome of Discovery), on the South Bank of the River Thames between Westminster Bridge and Hungerford Bridge, in the London Borough of Lambeth.
The London Eye
Tower Bridge (built 1886–1894) is a combined bascule and suspension bridge in London which crosses the River Thames. It is close to the Tower of London, from which it takes its name, and has become an iconic symbol of London.
The bridge consists of two towers tied together at the upper level by means of two horizontal walkways, designed to withstand the horizontal forces exerted by the suspended sections of the bridge on the landward sides of the towers. The vertical component of the forces in the suspended sections and the vertical reactions of the two walkways are carried by the two robust towers. The bascule pivots and operating machinery are housed in the base of each tower. The bridge's present colour scheme dates from 1977, when it was painted red, white and blue for Queen Elizabeth II's silver jubilee. Originally it was painted a mid greenish-blue colour.
The nearest London Underground station is Tower Hill on the Circle and District lines, and the nearest Docklands Light Railway station is Tower Gateway.Contrary to popular belief, the song "London Bridge Is Falling Down" has nothing to do with Tower Bridge, instead referring to the collapses of other various London Bridges.
1. What kind of museum is the British Museum?
2. When was the British Museum first opened to the public?
3. On what collection was the British Museum born in 1753?
4. What are the most controversial objects from the collection of British Museum?
1. What are the two houses of the Parliament of U.K. which are meeting in the Palace of Westminster?
2. Where are the Houses of Parliament located ?
3. When was the first royal palace built ?
4. What were the only structure which survived of fire in 1834?
1. What is Piccadily Circus?
2.What are the most faimous streets which link in Piccadily Circus?
3. What statue and fountain are in Piccadily Circus?
4. What is underneth the Piccadily Circus?
1. What is Westminster Abbey's architectural style?
2. What is Westminster Abbey?
3. Who order the construction of Westminster Abbey in 1245?
4. How many royal weddings take place in Westminster Abbey?
1. Who lives in 10 Downing Street?
2. How many rooms has Number 10 of Downing Street?
3. What is near the Number 10 Downing Street?
4. What do the other floors contain?
1. What is The Barbican Centre?
2. What orchestras are formed on the concert hall?
3. Who owned the Barbican Centre?
4. How much did it cost to built the Barbican Centre?
1. What is Buckingham Palace?
2. In what year did Duke of Buckingham build the core of today's palace?
3. When became Buckingham Palace the official royal palace?
4. What is the last structure of palace, built in 1962?
1. What is Trafalgar Square?
2. What is build in the centre of Trafalgar Square?
3. What comemorates the name of the square?
4. What is the original name of Trafalgar Square?
1. What is St. Paul's Cathedral?
2. Who designed the church?
3. How high is St. Paul's Cathedral?
4. What is the cathedral's architectural style?
1. What kind of museum is Madame Thussaud's?
2. What kind of wax figures are in the museum?
3. Who founded this museum?
4. Who owned Madame Thussaud's?
1. When is The National Gallery founded ?
2. How many paintings are in The National Gallery?
3. Who designed the building?
4. Who is the current director of The National Gallery?
1. What rivers cross the Tower Bridge?
2. Why is it named the "Tower"?
3. What are the parts of Tower Bridge?
4. What are the colours of Tower Bridge?
1. What's London Eye?
2. How high is it?
3. How many visitors has The London Eye annually ?
4. What is the year of the construction?
London's Hyde Park is one of the greatest city parks in the world. Covering 142 hectares (350 acres) and with over 4,000 trees, a large lake, a meadow and ornamental flower gardens, there’s a good chance you’ll forget you are right in the centre of London.
Hyde Park in London has something for everyone. You can enjoy swimming, boating, cycling and skating. There are pitches for team games, tennis courts, tracks for horse riding and a spectacular children’s playground.
The Park has two lakeside restaurants which are licensed and serve everything from a three-course meal to a quick cup of coffee. Hyde Park is home to a number of fascinating buildings and monuments, such as The Serpentine Bridge, the Joy of Life fountain and the famous Archiles statue. And with the Diana Memorial Fountain and open air events throughout the year, there’s always something to see and do. If you’re out and about on Sunday, head to Speaker’s Corner to hear London’s most vocal orators share their opinions with the world.
Ice skating will also be available from November to January
The Regent's Park
The Regent’s Park, 166 hectares (410 acres), was designed in 1811 by renowned architect John Nash and includes stunning rose gardens. The Park is the largest outdoor sports area in London catering for football, softball and rugby, and a cricket pitch. There are wild bird species and waterfowl.
The Park hosts London Zoo, the Open Air Theatre (performances end May to early September), and a boating lake. There are public toilets with disabled access and baby changing rooms. Cafés include The Garden Café, The Honest Sausage, The Boathouse Café, and the Tennis Centre Café.
The view from the top of Primrose Hill is one of London’s best, affording a fantastic panorama across the city. There is a playground, sports facilities and public toilets with disabled access.
The largest Royal Park in London (1,000 hectares/2,500 acres), and home to 650 deer. This pastoral landscape of hills and woodlands set amongst ancient trees, with plants, animals and butterflies, offers a peaceful respite to visitors.
Playgrounds at Kingston and Petersham gates, and two golf courses near Roehampton Gate. Educational facilities for those with special needs at Holly Lodge Centre (by appointment). There is fishing available at Pen Ponds, plus horse-riding tracks and a cycling path. Public toilets with disabled access at most main gates.
The Isabella Plantation is an organic woodland garden. For eating, choose from Pembroke Lodge, a Georgian mansion with spectacular views and garden seating, Roehampton Café or refreshment kiosks located at main car parks.
St. James's Park
With royal, political and literary associations, St James’s Park is at the heart of London and covers 23 hectares (58 acres). Also home to the Mall, with many ceremonial parades and events of national celebration.
The pelicans are fed every day at 14:30, and there are water birds, plus owls, woodpeckers and bats. Children’s playground, deck chairs April - September. Changing the Guard occurs daily in summer and alternate days for rest of year; The Queen's Lifeguard changes daily at Horse Guards Parade Ground. Visit Inn The Park, a contemporary British restaurant café open from breakfast through to dinner.
Greenwich is the oldest enclosed Royal Park, 74 hectares (183 acres), and home to a small herd of deer. On top of a hill, visitors enjoy sweeping views across the River Thames and central London.
Part of Greenwich World Heritage Site, host to the Prime Meridian Line and the old Royal Observatory, and near the National Maritime Museum. In summer, a bandstand plays host to concerts and the children’s playground offers entertainment.
There are three cafés: The Tea Pavilion, with beautiful large gardens; St Mary’s Gate Café, near the National Maritime Museum; and The Honest Sausage – near the Royal Observatory. Public toilets with disabled access. Cricket and tennis can be played.
1. What kind of activities can you do in this park?
2. What is served at the lakeside restaurants?
3. What monuments are in the Hyde Park?
4. What will be available from Novenber to January?
1. Who designed The Regent's Park?
2. What sports can you practice in this park?
3. What does the park hosts?
4. What cafés includes it?
1. Where is The St. James's Park located?
2. What birds are in this park?
3. Where is The Queen's Lifeguard changing daily?
4. What kind of associations had the park?
1. What does the park hosts?
2. What can be played in The Greenwich Park?
3. What meridian line passes through this park?
4. What does the bandstand plays?
1. Who lives in Richmond Park?
2. What is near Roehampton Gate?
3. What is Holly Lodge Centre?
4. What is The Isabella Plantation?