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Transcript of Agricultural Revolution
From Fallow to Enclosure
Land to be cultivated was divided into several large fields that were cut up into long, narrow strips.
After repeated cultivation, the ground grew infertile and was left fallow for several seasons.
Solutions to the problem included:
Crop Rotation - Alternating grain with nitrogen-storing crops.
Enclosure Movement - The consolidation agriculturalists' scattered holdings into compact, fenced in fields. Enclosure was considered necessary for crop rotation to work.
Tried to develop better methods of farming.
Use of horses instead of oxen for plowing.
Sowing seed with drilling equipment rather than scattering it by hand.
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Lands that were set aside for livestock of the community
POV - Peasants
Poor rural landholders didn't like the idea of the enclosure movement because they valued traditional rights and didn't want to be restricted to their own land. Enclosing their land meant blocking them from their precious resources.
Gleaners - poor women who went through the fields picking up the few single grains that had been left behind
Results of Enclosure
By eliminating common rights, the enclosure movement create a rise of market-oriented estate agriculture. A tiny minority of wealthy landowners held most of the land and leased their holdings to farmers who relied on landless laborers.
These laborers had lost the independence and self-respect provided by common rights and were completely dependent on cash wages. This transformation of large of numbers of small peasant farmers into landless rural wage earners is known as proletarianization.
Limitations of Population Growth
The ravages of the Black Death caused a sharp drop in population and prices and created a labor shortage throughout Europe.
After a surge of population growth, the growth of agricultural production was outstripped. There was less food per person, and food prices rose more rapidly than wages. Widespread poverty ensued, and population growth slowed and stopped.
and Global Economy
Ships brought molasses and other goods from the Americas and loaded up with cloth, guns, ammunition, and other industrial goods
Guns, ammunition, cloth, industrial goods, and even spare rum was shipped in, in exchange for slaves.
Ships brought slaves to trade for sugar, molasses, and rum, as well as other agricultural goods
Mercantilism and Colonial Wars
Mercantilism was a system of economic regulations aimed at increasing the power of the state. In mercantilism, the government regulated trade so that more goods could be exported than imported, creasing the countries stock of gold. the colonies didn't like this idea because it was a disadvantage to their economy.
Cottage Industry consisted of manufacturing with hand tools in peasant cottages and work sheds. The Cottage Industry usually was used to make fabric, threads and textiles.
Cottage Industry and Putting-out System
The putting-out system involved the merchant capitalist and the rural worker. The merchant loaned, or "put out," raw materials to cottage workers who processed the raw materials in their own homes and returned the finished products to the merchant.
The enclosure movement, the elimination of the fallow, and new devices for farming led to an increase in agricultural production. The emergence of cottage industry and the putting-out system led to the rise of mercantilism, which led to colonial wars.
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Q.1 What resulted from the enclosure movment?
a. An increase in population growth
b. Protests by wealthy landowners because of proletarianization
c. The peasants lost their common rights
d. The cows began a revolution
Q.2 Who was Jethro Tull?
a. An advocate of mercantilism
b. The man who introduced crop rotation
c. An agriculturalist who used horses instead of oxen for plowing
d. the CEO of Apple
Q.3 What was the putting-out system?
a. A system in which cottage workers were loaned raw materials to process in their own homes
b. Manufacturing with hand tools in peasant cottages and work sheds
c. A system of economic regulations aimed at increasing the power of the state
d. A plot by the Illuminati to destroy Europe
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He only lived once.