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Soul Music Tech AS

AS Music Tech 2015 Soul Special Focus

Laurence Bush

on 27 January 2016

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Transcript of Soul Music Tech AS

The gateway to change, and to a new genre of music
Where did it start?
Today, we're checking out Soul music.

Direct correlations from its earlier successors will be made, we'll cover key artists of the genre, and we'll go over stylistic features commonly found in the genre.
Rhythm and Blues, Rock'n'Roll.
It was in Rhythm and Blues - previously known as 'Race Music', that Soul emerged from.
Some people saw it as simply the new name for Rhythm and Blues, but as Rock'n'Roll had spun off the 'White' version of Rhythm and Blues, Soul was 'Black' music going back to its roots.
Just like the Blues had emerged from slavery in America, Soul had emerged from the inequality between whites and blacks in the USA.
Ray Charles had directly experienced vicious inequality, and decided he wanted to take control of his life.
Ray Charles
This soon to be legend started out determined to make a name for himself in the music industry at the time.

He began with the piano in the 1940s and played piano in bands for many people.
Early Ray Charles - 1949
Classic Blues
Eventually he got the chance to perform his recordings, with this one being his first hit in the 'R&B charts' of 1949.
Atlantic Records
After much frustration of not getting beyond his cohorts in the R&B charts, Ray Charles was picked up by Atlantic records in 1952, a new record label at the time.
The Soul Sound = The Singer
1950s Gospel
Whilst R&B was doing good on Saturday nights, Gospel was doing good on Sunday mornings in the Black community.
The intensity of the voice is what gives it away
Black community heavily tied to the church
Atlantic Records
Otis Redding
classic soul
Known as the voice of soul music, Otis Redding died in a plane crash at 26 years old only four days after his song "(Sittin' on) The Dock of the Bay" hit No. 1 in 1968.
Ruth Brown
Ruth Brown was a huge influence on Ray Charles by bringing the intensity of her singing out to crowd!
Yes, this on the documentary too, I just couldn't find many other records of Ruth Brown's that capture this vocal style
What else was the Soul Sound?
Electric Guitar did feature, but it wasn't the main emphasis
Further Reading
The Soul Singer and his backing vocalists
The Piano
Horn section
The Soul Singer
Here's a Couple of Soul numbers
Otis Redding
Arethra Franklin
What instruments do we have in playing in each one?
Write them all down, we'll go over once we've listened to both
Otis Redding
Arethra Franklin
If You Didn't Catch Them All
The Soul Singer
Backing Vocalists
Horn Section
Drum Kit
Double Bass
Fretted Bass
Hand percussion
String Section
Bonus One
String Section
what new additions do we have here?
Electric Guitar
with Tremolo pedal
We will carry on from where we were next time
As this is a special subject, we definitely need to dive deeper into the artists of the studios, and also a couple who had their own record labels. We'll also being going through time to the 70s.
Respect for Otis Redding didn't quite mean respect in the way you think it means - it was a euphemism
For Arethra Franklin however, she spun it around and created a different meaning with it.
Atlantic records was a record company set up in 1947 by two Turkish brothers - sons of Diplomats - and focused on the new music at the time - Soul.
A good quote from the man himself is, 'I am not a Blues singer nor an R&B singer, but a Soul singer. We sing without any preparation while we walk into the studio, this is what we called Soul. You sing how you feel. - Otis Redding
Stax Records
partners with Atlantic
Satellite Records, then Stax
The Motown recording studios and record label were made in 1959, Detroit, by Berry Gordy with just $800
Diana Ross and the Supremes
The Supremes held supreme with 12 number one hits! They were Motown's ultimate group in the 1960s, and are still the most successful 'vocal group' to date.
No one else reigns supreme.
Otis Redding
Isaac Hays
Stax was one of the first record companies to openly have both black and white folks together.

Booker T and the MGs were made out of both whites and blacks, as the band members all loved the same music.

Their instrumentals were to influence the band sound of Soul music
Carla Thomas
Soul Record Labels
The influence of Ray Charles, his new singing style, and his popularity of the Raelettes backing singers influenced many artists part of three soon to be big record labels
No need to write anything down, but mentally note down the vocal style from Ray Charles and the Raelettes.
Hit the Road Jack
Ray Charles and the Raelettes
Key artists who worked for Motown
Stevie Wonder
Marvin Gaye
Smokey Robinson
Jackson 5
Mary Wells
Gladys Knight
Lionel Richie
Four Tops
Diana Ross & The Supremes
The Temptations
Everything happened in this house
Attic - Reverberation Chamber
Living Room - Control Room
The story is similar to a bedroom producer making it big, just with ancient technology
Basement - Mastering to record
Out the back was the recording studio
Reverberation Chambers
Present day reverb
Olden times
Reverberation chamber
Control Room
Modern Day Mixers
Motown Console
Vinyl Press
This was happening in the basement of the house
Recording Studio / Live Room
Full transcript