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Post Cold-War Yugoslavia

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Jacob Wachspress

on 22 June 2014

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Transcript of Post Cold-War Yugoslavia

Post Cold War Yugoslavia
By: Carolyn Hamberg, David Levey,
Tim Sweeney, Haley Toadvine,
Jacob Wachspress, Lily Waldorf

States Within Yugoslavia, 1991

International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia
Established May 25, 1993
to prosecute the crimes committed in the Yugoslav Wars
Established by Resolution 827 of the United Nations Security Council
Crimes Committed that received punishment
Violations of Laws and Customs of War
Crimes against Humanity
ICTY convicted
45 Serbs
12 Croats
4 Bosniaks
of war crimes in the war with Bosnia
The worst possible form of punishment was life imprisonment
Tribunal Building in The Hague, Netherlands
There are 20 permanent judges who
serve on the tribunal
They serve for 4 years and can be re-elected
Nominees are elected from states that are members of the United Nations
Make sure your volume is on
Possession of Bosnia-Herzegovina had been fought over for centuries
Unrest sparked by the separation of Slovenia and Croatia in June 1991
1992: Bosnia-Herzegovina declares independence from Serbia, war ensues
Croat-Bosniak War breaks out simultaneously
Background Info
Bosnian War
April 6, 1992 - December 14, 1995
Principally a territorial conflict between the Serb's Army of Republika Srpska (VRS) and the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (ARBiH)
Bosnia-Herzegovina was comprised of Muslims, Serbians, and Catholic Croats, and these were the three parties involved in the war.
Background- Foundations to Conflict
Since Yugoslavia's establishment, Kosovo was an autonomous (self-ruling) province within Serbia
Kosovars were Albanian-speaking Muslims, but some Christian Serbs lived in Kosovo as well
- Tensions between Serbs and Kosovars sometimes grew violent
- Kosovars had majority in government
March 1989- Milosevic occupies Kosovo and abolishes Kosovar self-rule in support of the "oppressed Serbs"- stirs up unrest among Kosovars
"Socialist Republic of Serbia"
Largest republic in terms of population and size
The capital, Belgrade, Was also the federal capital of Yugoslavia
*Yugoslavian government structure gave Serbia immense power*
(Serbian president had control of entire Yugoslavian army)
Kosovo and Vojvodina- dependent provinces with their own governments
Background Info
Slobodan Milosevic
President of Serbia from 1989-2001
Led the Socialist party of Serbia from its foundation in 1990
Goal was to grab land from other republics and unite all Serbs in a "Greater Serbia"
1989- arbitrarily abolished self rule in Kosovo
Milosevic’s moves strengthened cause for separatism among non-Serbs in Yugoslavia
Later charged with war crimes including genocide and crimes against humanity in connection to the wars in Bosnia, Croatia, and Kosovo
Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA)
1991-1998: Yugoslav Wars and Western involvement lead to NO change for Kosovo
Organization of militant Kosovars who fought for independence from Serbia
- Formed in 1998
- 10,000 to 15,000 members
Terrorized the Serbs in Kosovo- led to about 30,000 refugees
Serbian forces fight back, leads to Kosovo War of Independence
KLA unit on Kosovo's northern border
Kosovo War
February 1998 to June 1999
Serbian forces attacked KLA militants as well as
Kosovar villagers
- Displaced 250,000 Kosovars by the end of 1998
NATO feared more ethnic violence, threatened to bomb Yugoslavia unless Milosevic granted Kosovo self-rule (not full independence)
- Milosevic refused
- NATO began bombing Serbian military bases (March 1999)
- Milosevic responded by driving 865,000 Kosovars into exile
End of the Kosovo War
After Milosevic exiled 865,000 innocent Kosovars, NATO increased its bombing efforts to force Milosevic to give in
- 5,000-10,000 Serbian soldiers killed, 2 Americans killed
Kosovars regained their land and autonomy but were not officially "independent" from Serbia
UN-NATO forces occupied Kosovo to keep the peace,
end of Yugoslav Wars
- Kosovo officially declared independence in 2008, still not recognized by Serbia
NATO members meet to discuss the bombing of Serbia
(see video describing the plight of the refugees)
Sides of the War
Bosnian Muslims
- 50% of population
- Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (ARBiH)
Bosnian Serbs
- 30% of the population
- Wanted to form the Republika Srpska
_ Army of Republika Srpska (VRS)
- Supported by the Serbian Government and the Yugoslav People's Army (IHA)
Bosnian Croats
- 17% of the population
- Wanted to gain land for Croatia and form Herzeg-Bosnia.
- Croatian Defense Council (HVO)
Ethnic Cleansing
Ethnic Cleansing was a common tactic of the war. This included intimidation, forced expulsion, and killing of certain ethnic groups as well as the destruction of places of worship, cemeteries and historical buildings.

Serb and Croat forces performed ethnic cleansing at the command of political leaders in order to create ethnically pure states.

In 1995, a report by the Central Intelligence Agency found Serbian forces responsible for 90% of all war crimes committed during the war.
Siege of Sarajevo
The Siege of Sarajevo took place from April 1992 to February 1996. Sarajevo was the capital of Bosnia-Herzegovina and was attacked by the Army of Republika Srpska (Serbs). This attack was the the longest in siege of a capital city in modern warfare. 9,500 - 14,000 people were killed in the attack.
Croat-Bosniak War
The Croat-Bosniak War was a conflict between the Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina and the Republic of Croatia, which had previously been allies in the Siege of Sarajevo. This war took place between June 1992 and February 1994. It is commonly called "a war within a war" because it was a part of the larger Bosnian War. The war ended with a ceasefire and a peace treaty delegated by the United States.
Genocide in Srebrenica
Serb forces, led by Ratko Mladic, invaded the city of Srebrenica in July 1995 and killed 7,400 Muslim civilians through bombings and gunfire. The United States Congress declared that the Serbian policies of aggression and ethnic cleansing were considered a genocide. The attack and reaction in the West prompted NATO to get involved, bombing Bosnian Serb military bases extensively.
Background + Causes of war
New democracy + tensions after Milosevic ends Kosovar home rule = calls for independence
1945-1989: Under Yugoslav communist regime
Late 1980's: mass democratic movement as Cold War ends
September 1989: formation of parliamentary democracy
War + Results
Slovenia officially declares independence on 6/25/1991
Ten Days War starts the next day
(Slovenian police and militants vs. Serb-controlled Yugoslavian national army)
Slovenes win independence with very few casualties
Modern state
Member of NATO & European Union
Croats & Serbs had been able to coexist for years in Croatia
1990- Croatia forms parliamentary democracy
Tensions rise between Serbs and Muslim Croats because the Serbs fear that democracy would lead to oppression from the Croats (who were in the majority)
March 1991- Serb minority secedes from Croatia
War for Independence begins (same time as war in Slovenia)
Background and Causes of War
War + Results
War divides on ethnic lines-
Croats vs. anti-independence Croatian Serbs (plus Milosevic's Yugoslavian National Army)
Serbs successful in their invasion and start own republic on Croatian land
Republic of Serbian Krajina
30% of Croatia
Part of a "greater Serbia" to unite all Serbs-displaces thousands of Croats who become refugees
Result of war- after four years of fighting, Croatia regains nearly all land from the Serbs and retains independence (total of 25,000 deaths)
War Crimes
Fighting on borders leads to intentional massacres of civilians
Killings of war prisoners
Both Croats and Serbs were guilty
Image from the Gospić massacre, which resulted in over 100 civilian deaths
Macedonian Independence
Macedonia declares independence from Yugoslavia in September 1991, sparked by Slovenia and Croatia
- Serbian focus is on Slovenia and Croatia, no war ensues
- End of communism in Macedonia
Macedonia served as a beacon of peace for refugees during the rest of the Yugoslav Wars
2001 (after wars)- Small uprising by Albanians within Macedonia was put down by NATO's peacekeeping forces
Fall of Milosevic
July 2001: new pro-Western Serbian government turned him over to UN war crimes tribunal
Died in 2006 before proceedings completed
September 2000: war-weary Serbs (remember, their country was just bombed) voted him out
Summary of Post-Cold War Yugoslavia
Mass Rape
Rape and sexual assault are usually sporadic events in war, but in the Bosnia, systematic rape was used as an instrument of war. The International Criminal Tribunal
for the former Yugoslavia declared systematic rape a crime against humanity second to genocide. Women were kept in detention centers and concentration camps in terribly unhygienic conditions. This has been referred to as "Mass Rape" and sometimes "Genocidal Rape". During the Bosnian war 20,000-50,000 women were raped. Serbs did this in an effort to create more Serbian children (since ethnicity is based on the father) and cause psychological oppression.
Milosevic's take on the issues of the 1990s
Interview with Amina, Bosnian victim of ethnic cleansing
End of the War + Results
- November 1995: Bill Clinton went to Bosnia and helped negotiate a peace agreement that gave the Serbs 49% of Bosnia and the Muslim-Croats the rest
- NATO troops remained in Bosnia to keep the peace

-100,000 people killed (40,000 were civilians)
-20,000-50,000 women raped
-2.2 million people displaced
-Most devastating conflict in Europe since WWII
Full transcript