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Rome, Han, and Gupta Comparison

Similarities and differences between Ancient Rome, The Gupta Empire, and The Han Dynasty of China.
by

Dominick Gratalo

on 2 October 2012

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Transcript of Rome, Han, and Gupta Comparison

Rome, Han, and Gupta Comparison By: Dominick Gratalo and Kohl Schoensee Rome and Han P
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Downfall Gupta and Rome P
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Downfall Differences- Similarities- Rome and Han Dynasty They both had highly centralized political systems, which allowed them both to be able to control a large area of land for a long period of time. P
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Downfall Rome was a Republic, the Republic of Rome consisted of a Roman Senate:SPQR; It was originally weak but gained power. Rome was in the West. The Han Dynasty was an Absolute Monarchy, with one male ruler and his son would become the next ruler when he died. The Han Dynasty was in the East. Rome traded with multiple countries via sea travel, they built lighthouses to make sea trade easier. The Han dynasty did not originally trade with other countries, but they eventually did with the silk road but they did not do any sea trade. Both the Han Dynasty and the Roman Empire were involved in trade. Trade boosted both of their economies. In Rome, they tolerated any religion as long as they did not interfere with loyalty to the state. Eventually in 313 CE. they make Christianity the official religion. In the Han Dynasty Daoism was the main religion. They believed in letting nature flow. Small percentages of the population practiced other religions such as Confucianism. They both had religions that greatly influenced the empire/ dynasty. There were three main social classes in the Roman Empire. There were the Patricians: wealthy land owners, the Plebeians: common people, and the slaves: lowest class, had no legal rights, not considered citizens of Rome. In the Han Dynasty there was one ruler who had the power over everyone else. The next highest class besides the emperor was the aristocrats and bureaucrats, followed by skilled laborers, and finally unskilled laborers. Both the Han Dynasty and the Roman Empire both had social classes. Both social class systems had fewer amounts of people in the higher classes and the majority of the people in the lower classes. Arches and vault ceilings, the use of concrete, the roman crane, public sewers and hot baths, and signal towers were all technological developments made by the Romans. The hot air balloon, draw loom, stirrups, rudders for ships, magnetic compass, the seismograph, the wheelbarrow, cast iron technology,parachutes, and papermaking were all technological advancements made by the Han Dynasty. Both the Roman Empire and the Han dynasty developed major roads. Both societies advancements were unique to the Empires/Dynasties characteristics and were beneficial to their success. In the Roman Empire "bread and circuses" were highly encouraged to calm the public and entertain the large number of patrons, and to make it seem as if the empire was prospering. Art was prospering throughout this time as well. Pottery was prominent at this time, such as vases and ceramics. Meditation was also popular at this time. Both were able to develop cultural tastes due to their free time from farming and success of the civilizations. The Roman Empire took almost four centuries to completely fall because they were constantly attacked by nomadic barbarians from the north. There was also interior problems from the empire being too large and power hungry. The downfall of the Han dynasty took a small amount of time (11 years) to disintegrate from power. The cycle of chinese history repeated itself and a new dynasty took over eventually. Both empires got too large to manage and were constantly being attacked and fighting off enemies. They could not adequately defend themselves. Rome and Gupta Similarities P
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Downfall They allowed local rulers that they defeated to maintain regional control as long as they deferred to Gupta dominance. Rome was a Republic, the Republic of Rome consisted of a Roman Senate:SPQR; It was originally weak but gained power. Rome was in the West. The Gupta empire was by far the most active sea trading people during the time. They made merchants and trading super important and this made their economy flourish. The Roman Empire did both sea and land trade but much more land trade through roads they developed. Compared to the Gupta Empire who did not trade as much on land. Both the Gupta and the Roman Empires had control through force, this was how they both conquered the huge amounts of land that each empire maintained. They were both had very centralized governments. Both empires economies relied heavily on trade, more specifically, they each were extremely involved in sea trade. The Gupta Empire promoted Hinduism more than any other religion. Hinduism was the religion of India's majority. In Rome, they tolerated any religion as long as they did not interfere with loyalty to the state. Eventually in 313 CE. they make Christianity the official religion. Both empires had a single major religion that the majority of the population believed in. The Gupta Empire had a caste system because of their belief in Hinduism. The highest caste was the Brahmins, followed by the warriors, then the landowners, then the peasants and finally the lowest of them all, the untouchables. There were three main social classes in the Roman Empire. There were the Patricians: wealthy land owners, the Plebeians: common people, and the slaves: lowest class, had no legal rights, not considered citizens of Rome. Each of these empires had a distinguished social class system. The slaves and the untouchables were pretty much equal in the fact that they were the lowest and were not even considered citizens. It was considered the Golden Age during the Empire and they discovered the number zero, infinity, decimal numbers and pi. They discovered seven planets, figured out the world was round and not flat, developed a theory of gravity, they also began creating universities, such as Nalanda. Arches and vault ceilings, the use of concrete, the roman crane, public sewers and hot baths, and signal towers were all technological developments made by the Romans. Both empires made huge technological advancements that are still used today. In the Gupta Empire citizens believed in the many Hindu Gods and would constantly meditate in their free time. They would also practice ancient rituals with words that are so old that they don't even know what they mean but they still follow the traditions. In the Roman Empire "bread and circuses" were highly encouraged to calm the public and entertain the large number of patrons, and to make it seem as if the empire was prospering. Art was prospering throughout this time as well. Both empires had unique artistic displays that were so much different from the rest of the world. The Roman Empire took almost four centuries to completely fall because they were constantly attacked by nomadic barbarians from the north. There was also interior problems from the empire being too large and power hungry. The Huns began invading India, the Gupta Empire attempted to defend against these attacks but was eventually defeated. After being defeated India divided back into small regional kingdoms. Both of these advanced empires were defeated by constant attacks from outside forces. They both could not adequately defend themselves from these attacks. P
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Downfall Han and Gupta Differences The Han Dynasty was an Absolute Monarchy, with one male ruler and his son would become the next ruler when he died. The Han Dynasty was in the East. They allowed local rulers that they defeated to maintain regional control as long as they deferred to Gupta dominance. They had to conquer all of their empire. The Han dynasty did not originally trade with other countries, but they eventually did with the silk road but they did not do any sea trade. The Gupta empire was by far the most active sea trading people during the time. They made merchants and trading super important and this made their economy flourish. They were much more active in trade than the Han Dynasty. Both the Gupta Empire and the Han Dynasty controlled by having regional rulers that had loyalty to the main Empire/Dynasty. Both were very active in trade, after the silk road was built the Han Dynasty's trade exploded and the Gupta Dynasty was always very active in trade. In the Han Dynasty Daoism was the main religion. They believed in letting nature flow. Small percentages of the population practiced other religions such as Confucianism. The Gupta Empire promoted Hinduism more than any other religion. Hinduism was the religion of India's majority. The Gupta Empire had a caste system because of their belief in Hinduism. The highest caste was the Brahmins, followed by the warriors, then the landowners, then the peasants and finally the lowest of them all, the untouchables. It was considered the Golden Age during the Empire and they discovered the number zero, infinity, decimal numbers and pi. They discovered seven planets, figured out the world was round and not flat, developed a theory of gravity, they also began creating universities, such as Nalanda. In the Gupta Empire citizens believed in the many Hindu Gods. They would also practice ancient rituals with words that are so old that they don't even know what they mean but they still follow the traditions. The Huns began invading India, the Gupta Empire attempted to defend against these attacks but was eventually defeated. After being defeated India divided back into small regional kingdoms. In the Han Dynasty there was one ruler who had the power over everyone else. The next highest class besides the emperor was the aristocrats and bureaucrats, followed by skilled laborers, and finally unskilled laborers. The hot air balloon, draw loom, stirrups, rudders for ships, magnetic compass, the seismograph, the wheelbarrow, cast iron technology,parachutes, and papermaking were all technological advancements made by the Han Dynasty. Pottery was prominent at this time, such as vases and ceramics. The downfall of the Han dynasty took 11 years to disintegrate from power. The cycle of chinese history repeated itself and a new dynasty took over eventually. Both formed a single organized religion for everybody to follow, there were still few in each that practiced other religions. Both of these empires were similar in the fact that there were fewer amounts of people that had lots of power and there were a lot more people that had very little to none. Each of these empires made huge technological advancements that allowed even more to be created in the future. Both empires were actively involved in meditation and attempting to "cleanse" their bodies. While both of these empires were collapsing they divided into small regional kingdoms until they were eventually reunited again later in history.
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