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Gender Discrimination

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Katelyn Wingerd

on 6 January 2015

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Transcript of Gender Discrimination

Gender
Discrimination

From My Perspective: Gender Discrimination
The Media
Elementary Education
From edutopia.org. An article entitled:

Male Call: Recruiting More Men to Teach Elementary School: Stereotypes and low pay keep men away from teaching. But that Y chromosome can make a huge difference in the classroom.
My Personal Experiences
Sex and Gender Discrimination
From My Perspective: Sex Discrimination
By: Katelyn Wingerd
Separate Spheres Ideology and Cult of Domesticity
Men Women
public sphere domestic sphere

physically stronger morally superior

opportunity for education "unfit" for economics and
and political involvement politics

follow jobs in public sphere child-bearers and nurturers
A set of
nineteenth century
ideas that assigned men and women virtually opposite duties, functions, personal characteristics, and legitimate spheres of activity (DePaul).
A "true woman's" virtues: piety, purity, submission, and domesticity
Discrimination
Sexual vs. Gender Discrimination
What's the difference?
What is Sex Identity?
Distinguishing
SEX
and
GENDER
"the act of singling out a person for special treatment, not on the basis of individual merit, but on the basis of prejudices about the group to which the person belongs (Ford 2010, 21)"
Male and female

A physically defined biological function of chemical hormones

Usually differ in contribution to human reproduction
Simple example:
females can give birth
What is Gender?
Men and women

Society's interpretation of sex-based characteristics

Culturally-constructed value
Simple example: a woman's job of raising her children is a socially-defined gender role
A Quick Look at Sex and Gender Discrimination Through the Years
"I know I have the body of a weak and feeble woman, but I have the heart and stomach of a king of England too." ~Elizabeth I
17th Century
"I desire you would
Remember the Ladies
, and be more generous and favorable to them than your ancestors [...] If particular care and attention is not paid to the ladies, we are determined to foment a rebellion, and will not hold ourselves bound by any laws in which we have no voice or representation."
~Abigail Adams in a letter to her husband, John Adams (March 31, 1776)

"As to your extraordinary code of laws, I cannot but laugh."
~John Adams' reply to his wife, Abigail Adams
The 18th Century
"Separate and Unequal" becomes the law until the Court (partially) rejected the separate spheres ideology during the last two decades of the twentieth century
Coverture: husband + wife = one person (the husband)
The nineteenth century
Current: Sex and Gender Discrimination
~Growing-Up in the 21st Century~
Athletics
Occupation
School/Education
Media
"Challenging long-entrenched gender roles and relationships is difficult in a patriarchal culture even for the most committed individuals or groups. Gender exerts a powerful grip [...] on the social, political, and economic systems. The systems continue as 'normal,' becoming increasingly difficult to challenge. [...] Those who suggest the system is corrupt or wrong threaten to upset centuries of tradition and custom that make life predictable and comfortable for the majority."
~Lynne E. Ford (2010, 18)
The "most direct" challenge to the gendered world...
FEMINISM.
My Take on Feminism
What Does Feminism Mean to Me?
Feminism
Historian Nancy Cott's three-part definition:
Liberal Feminism
Oldest and most common strand

Work within existing political system

Goal: eradicate all forms of sexual discrimination
Black/Multicultural Feminism
Diversity of thought among diverse populations

Themes: legacy of struggle, experience born of multiple oppressions, interdependence of thought and action
Global Feminism
Goal: expand and include issues in the Third World

Include economic and political oppression
Ecofeminism
"Connectedness"

Connections between living things--human and nature

Environment = feminist issue
Gender Feminism
Root of women's oppressions lies at "the intersection of biology, psychology, and culture"

Moral superiority
A gendered field?
Third Wave Feminism
Larger issues related to justice

Younger generation
Radical Feminism
Belief: the "sex-gender system" is the source of women's oppression

Create new system
Marxist-Socialist Feminism
Capitalism = root of of women's oppression

Focus on the worker

Goal: redistribute wealth and opportunity
My Definition of Feminism
Image Works Cited
Works Cited
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-uIoJyLK5T30/UORnPGL3mTI/AAAAAAAACZ0/8Cda0ZgbY1k/s1600/0710Male_and_female.jpg
http://www.clker.com/cliparts/9/b/2/a/1316119063942736866Male%20and%20Female%20Bathroom%20Sign.svg.hi.png
http://dohistory.org/man-midwife/images/midwife.jpg
http://lawinquebec.files.wordpress.com/2011/02/discrimination-2.jpg
http://www.teara.govt.nz/files/34480-atl.jpg
http://lowres.cartoonstock.com/men-equal_pay-equal_pay_experts-gender_discrimination-costs-fee-jby0321_low.jpg
http://www.eschoolnews.com/wp-content/themes/advanced-newspaper/timthumb.php?src=%2Fblogs.dir%2F2%2Ffiles%2F2012%2F11%2Fbiology.jpg&q=90&w=479&zc=1
http://sadieamanda.files.wordpress.com/2009/06/i27m2bglad2b8bmp.jpg
http://www.luminarium.org/renlit/elizabristol.jpg
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-vZENSQ9ihDQ/TzqAPmlrw4I/AAAAAAAABK0/z8fBADEr03M/s400/17th%2Bcentury%2Bbabies%2Bmaternity%2Bdress.jpg
http://www.culture24.org.uk/asset_arena/6/58/56/365856/v0_master.jpg
http://www.gettysburg.k12.pa.us/webpages/htschop/photos/129277/large6_PB220084%20%282%29.jpg
http://www.jcwi.org.uk/sites/default/files/2011/09/news1.jpg
http://www.theodoresworld.net/pics/0611/NOWImage2.jpg

"If you started paying teachers $150,000 per year, you'd see a lot of guys going into the field. Other key reasons behind the male-teacher shortage, according to MenTeach, is the stereotype that teaching is "women's work." ~Bryan Nelson, founder of MenTeach (Edutopia 2008).
My Future Occupation
As a student studying to become an elementary school teacher, I could potentially face hardships as I apply for openings in school districts. Because there is a disproportionate number of male and female elementary school teachers, school districts are seeking more male teachers--especially in the younger grades. Elementary education is a competitive field, and although many factors go into a hiring, sex could (potentially) play a role.

My younger brother is studying to become a high school math teacher, and his professors have stated that as a male (and in the field of mathematics), he should have no problem finding a job in the field of education. In general, women are still underrepresented in the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) occupations despite "more of them getting college degrees in these fields" (Covert 2014).
A Gendered World
a belief in equality (not "sameness" but opposition to ranking)

a belief that women's condition is socially constructed and historically shaped

a belief that women's socially constructed position situates them on shared ground
(Ford 2010, 19)
Gender discrimination within the media is something that all youngsters are exposed to and will continue to be exposed to in the future.
Covert, Brice. 2014. "Women Are Less Likely To Get Hired In Math Jobs Even When They Perform As Well As Men." http://thinkprogress.org/economy/2014/03/12/3396151/women-bias-math-stem/ (January 5, 2015).

DePaul. "Separate Spheres: The Cult of True Womanhood." http://students.depaul.edu/~aali/lesson10.html (January 5, 2015).

Edutopia. 2008. "Male Call: Recruiting More Men to Teach Elementary School." http://www.edutopia.org/male-teacher-shortage (January 5, 2015).

Ford, Lynne E. 2010. Women and Politics: The Pursuit of Equality. Cengage Learning.

The LIZ Library. 2011. "LETTERS BETWEEN ABIGAIL ADAMS
AND HER HUSBAND JOHN ADAMS."http://www.thelizlibrary.org/suffrage/abigail.htm (January 5, 2015).
Feminism carries many different meanings, and even those who consider themselves to be feminists disagree on an exact definition of feminism. Overall, I agree in equality. Women deserve to hold positions of power, be paid the same as men, and have the opportunity to follow their career aspirations and succeed--just like men. Because there is not one distinct definition of feminism, I cannot say whether I identify as a feminist or not. Of the two paths to equality, I would favor the Fairness Doctrine, which recognizes biological differences and supports that men and women be treated differently yet fairly. Because I agree in equality for women and men in all systems, this may make me a feminist.
The first word that comes to mind whenever I think of feminism is "equality." Feminism is a direct challenge to the patriarchal culture and capitalism that have been custom for centuries. "Equality" does not mean "sameness," and I used to make this mistake before reading Ford's text. Feminism is a force because it challenges the traditional systems that yield comfort in society.
Feminism is a collection of movements and ideologies that support and advocate for equality of women in all systems, including the economy, government, politics, and society in general.
Toys
Growing up, I did not play with the toys that were designed for girls. I enjoyed playing with Lego's and Match Box cars. Although a simple example, toys are designed based on gender.
Athletics
Growing up, I wanted to follow in my dad's and brother's footsteps and play football and wrestle. However, as a female, this was really not an option. Instead, I had to choose softball (over baseball).
Career Dream
From a very young age, my dad and I would analyze MLB players' skills and make our own "scouting report." I wanted to follow in a good family friend's footsteps and become a scout for the MLB. However, I was a little disheartened whenever I discovered that there is only one female in the entire profession.
Elementary Education
Less than 20% of elementary school educators are men. The majority of educators are women, along with nursing and secretarial work.
The Workplace
The workplace is a domain in which males and females may experience discrimination.
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