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Transcript of First-aid: Fractures
Open and Closed Fractures
Stable and Unstable Fractures
What are fractures?
A break or crack in a bone due to receiving a heavy blow(direct force) or a twist or wrench (indirect force)
- deformity, swelling and brushing at fracture site
- pain and/or difficulty in moving the area
- shortening, bending or twisting of a limb
- coarse grating (crepitus) of the bone ends that can be heard or felt (by casualty)- do not try to seek this
- signs of shock, especially if the thigh bone or pelvis are fractured
- difficulty in moving a limb normally or at all (e.g. Inability to walk)
- a wound, possibly with bone ends protruding (open fracture)
~Bone ends can easily move (by movement of muscle contraction) as it is broken or ruptured(ligaments are torn)
~Blood vessels, nerves and organs around injury may be damaged
~Should be handled carefully to prevent further damage
Bone is exposed at the surface and carries high risk of becoming infected
Open and Closed
Skin around fracture is intact
Bone may be displaced and cause internal bleeding from damage in the nearby tissues and blood vessels
~Bone ends do not move as they are not completely broken
~Common at the wrist, shoulder, ankle and hip
~Can be gently handled without further damage
Stable and Unstable Fractures
1. Cover wound with sterile dressing or large, clean, non-fluffy pad. Apply pressure around the injury to control bleeding.
CAUTION: Be careful not to press on a protruding bone
2. Carefully place a sterile wound dressing or more clean padding over and around the first dressing.
3. Secure the dressing and padding with a bandage. Bandage firmly but not tightly.
4. Immobilise the injured part as for a closed fracture, and arrange to transport casualty to hospital.
5. Treat for shock if necessary. Monitor and record vital signs while waiting for help. Check circulation beyond the bandages every ten minutes. If circulation is impaired, losses the bandages.
CAUTION: Do not raise the injured leg
1. Advise the casualty to keep still. Support the injured area and immobilise with a sling or bandages.
2. Place padding around the injury for extra support. Transport casualty with arm injury to the hospital by car or call for emergency help at 995 for a leg injury.
3. For firmer support while waiting for removal to hospital, secure the injured part to an unaffected part of the body. For upper limb fractures, immobilise the arm with a sling. For lower limb fractures, move the uninjured leg to the injured one and secure with broad-fold bandages.
CAUTION: Always tie the knots on the uninjured side.
4. Treat for shock if necessary. Monitor and record vital signs while waiting for help. Check the circulation beyond a sling or bandage every ten minutes. If the circulation impaired, loosen the bandages.
~Do not raise an injured leg and elevate an uninjured limb if shock is present
~Do not move the casualty until the injured part is secured and supported, unless she is in immediate danger.
~Do not allow the casualty to eat or drink because an a aesthetic may be needed.
Caution(applies to both types)
Do not press directly on a protruding bone end.
If a bone end is protruding, build up pads of clean, soft, non-fluffy material around the bone, until you can bandage over it without pressing on the injury.
Done by: Chen ZhuoLin
Year 1 Squad '14