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Formal Types of translation
Transcript of Formal Types of translation
Oral and Written Translation
• Oral Translation is a translation performed orally, irrespectively of the form of the text-source, either consecutively or simultaneously.
• Written translation is a translation performed in writing, irrespectively of the form of the text-source, either consecutively or simultaneously.
• Computer-assisted translation (CAT), also called computer- aided translation - is a form of translation where in a human translator creates a target text with the assistance of a computer program.
• Machine translation (MT) is a procedure whereby a computer program analyzes a source text and produces a target text without further human intervention . In reality, however, machine translation typically does involve human intervention, in the form of pre-editing and post-editing .
• According to the unit of translation, it can be
• sound translation;
• word translation;
• word-combination, idioms or phraseological units translation;
• intertextual translation
• sentence translation;
• text translation
• According to the aim of translation, it can be
• literal translation;
• summative translation, when the main ideas are rendered in the translated version
• abstract - not more than a paragraph (sometimes not more than 6-7 sentences).
• According to tasks and objectives of translation,
it can be
• literary translation;
• informative translation;
• semantic translation
• According to number of translators, translation can be
• individual translation
• committee translation
Different theorists state various definitions for translation.
Translation is a complicated task, in which the meaning of the
text should be conveyed to the
readers. In other words, translation can be defined as encoding the meaning and form in the target language by means of the decoded meaning and form of the source language.
Translation (or the practice of translation) is a set of actions performed by the translator while rendering the source (or original) text (ST) into another language.
Types of translation
Translation is a means of interlingual communication.
The translator makes possible an exchange of information between the users of different languages by producing in the target language (TL or the translating language) a text which has an identical communicative value with the source (or original) text (ST). This target text (TT, that is the translation) is not fully identical with ST as to its form or content due to the limitations imposed by the formal and semantic differences between the
source language (SL) and target langusge (TL).
Nevertheless the users of TT identify it, to all intents and purposes, with ST – functionally, structurally and semantically. The functional identification is revealed in the fact that the users (or the translation receptors - TR) handle TT in such a way as if it were ST, a creation of the source text author.
The structure of the translation should follow that of the original text: there should be no change in the sequence of narration or in the arrangement of the segments of the text.
The aim is maximum parallelism of structure which would make it possible to relate each segment of the translation to the respective part of the original.
Of major importance is the semantic identification of the translation with ST. It is presumed that the translation has the same meaning as the original text.
The presumption of semantic identity between ST and TT is based on the various degrees of equivalence of their meanings. The translator usually tries to produce in TL the closest possible equivalent to ST.
The translating process includes two mental processes – understanding and verbalization. First, the translator understands the contents of ST, that is, reduces the information it contains to his own mental program, and then he develops this program into TT.
Closest natural equivalent
o This is a form of idiomatic translation .
This procedure ensures that the translation is faithful to the meaning intended by the original writer.
Translation done by a group, rather than a single individual. Committee translation has distinct advantages, especially in increased accuracy that comes from the checks and balances process of committee work.
Common language translation (CLT)
o The vocabulary and grammatical constructions are chosen carefully to ensure that they are in common usage by ordinary speakers of the language.
• Dynamic translation
o If a translation is dynamic we mean that the original meaning is communicated naturally in it, as well as accurately.
• 15 - Essentially literal translation
o The translators promote it as: an “essentially literal” translation that seeks as far as possible to capture the precise wording of the original text and the personal style of each writer. Its emphasis is on “word-for-word” correspondence.
• 16 - Form-equivalent translation (FE)
o In this type of translation, the translator chooses one of a limited number of meanings assigned to each word. The translator fills in the words that belong in the sentence but follows the word arrangement and grammar that is characteristic of the original language. Such a translation is often viewed as accurate. However, it can result in awkward, misleading, incomprehensible, or even amusing sentences.
• 17 -. Free translation
o A free translation is one which preserves the meaning of the original but uses natural forms of the target language, including normal word order and syntax, so that the translation can be naturally understood. Free translation is a kind of idiomatic translation.
• 18 - . Idiomatic translation
o Idiomatic translation is where the meaning of the original is translated into forms which most accurately and naturally preserve the meaning of the original forms. Idiomatic refers to being in the common language of average speakers, using the natural phrasings and idioms of the language.
19 - . Interlinear translation
o An interlinear translation presents each line of the source text with a line directly beneath it giving a word by word literal translation in a target language. An interlinear translation is useful for technical study of the forms of the source text.
• 20 - Interpretive translation
o A translation which he/she considers to include “ interpretation & quot; of the meaning of the source text, rather than simply the “ translation & quot of that text.
• 21 - Literal translation
o Literal translation is where the forms of the original are retained as much as possible, even if those forms are not the most natural forms to preserve the original meaning. Literal translation is sometimes called word-for-word translation (as opposed to thought-for-thought translation).
• 22 - Thought-for-thought translation
o In such a translation the meaning of the original text is expressed in equivalent thoughts. Thought-for-thought translation is typically contrasted with word-for-word translation.
• 23 - Vernacular translation
• Translation into the everyday (this is vulgar ) language of people, as distinguished from a language of education language.
• 24 - Word-for-word translation
o A form of literal translation which seeks to match the individual words of the original as closely as possible to individual words of the target language.
The translator seeks to translate an original word by the same target word as much as possible (this is technically called concordance). In addition, the order of words of the original language will be followed as closely as possible.