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APHG Ch.10 Agriculture

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Edward Morfa

on 18 March 2013

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Transcript of APHG Ch.10 Agriculture

Key Issue 1: Where Did Agriculture Originate? Chapter 10: Agriculture Origins of Agriculture Agriculture is deliberate modifications of Earth’s surface through cultivation of plants and rearing of animals to obtain sustenance or economic gain.








Crop is any plant cultivated by people. Purpose of farming
Percentage of farmers in the labor force
Use of machinery
Farm size
Relationship of farming to other businesses Five principles features distinguish commercial agriculture from subsistence agriculture: .......Only of Key Issue 1, not the entire chapter. The End Hunters & Gatheres All humans once obtained all food they needed to survive by hunting for animals, fishing, and gathering plants. Men hunted game or fished. Women collected berries, nuts, and roots. Lived in small groups to prevent the available resources from exhausting quickly. Everyone traveled or migrated from place to place depending on the migration of the animals and the seasonal growth of plants. Differnet groups communicated with each other concerning hunting rights, intermarriage, and other specfic subject. Today around 1/4 million people still survive by hunting and gathering. Invention of
Agriculture Agriculture originated in
multiple hearts around
the world. Wheat, Lentil and Olive = 10,000 years ago in Southwest Asia
Rice = 10,000 years ago in East Asia
Sorghum and Yams = 8,000 years ago in Central Africa
Beans and Cotton = 4,000-5,000 years ago in Mexico
Potatoes = 4,000-5,000 years ago in Peru Cattle, goats, pigs, and sheeps = 8,000-9,000 years ago in Southwest Asia
Dogs = 12,000 years ago in Southwest Asia Over thousands of years, plant cultivation apparently evolved from a combination of accident and deliberate experiments. Subsistence and
Commercial Agriculture Farmers in LDCs generally practice subsistence agriculture. Farmers in MDCs practice commercial agriculture. Subsistence Agriculture The production of food primarily for consumption by the farmer's family. Commercial Agrivulture The production of food primarily for sale off the farm. Purpose of
Farming Geographer Derwent Whittlesey in 1936 identified 11 main agricultural regions plus an area where agriculture was nonexistent. 5 are important in LDCs and 6 are important in MDCs. Climate Agriculture In LDCs, subsistence agriculture, most people produce food for thier own consumption. Some surplus may be sold to the government or to private firms. In commercial farming, farmers grow crops and raise animals for sale off the farm rather than for their own consumption. These products are sold to food-processing companies and then to consumers. Percentage of Farmers
in the Labor Force 5% in MDCs are engaged in farming. 50% in LDCs are engaged in farming. Agricultural workers by percentage Use of Machinery Tractors, combines, corn pickers, planters, and other factory-made farm machines have replaced or supplemented manual labor. Transportation improvements have enabled commercial farmers to transport crops and livestock farther and faster. Experiments have created new fertilizers, herbicides, hybrid plants, animal breeds, and farming practices, which produce higher crop yields and healthier animals. GPS helps commercial farmers by determining the percise coordinates for spreading different types and amounts of fertilizers. Farm Size Commercial farms are relatively large.
U.S. farms average 180 hectares (449 acres).
98% of commercial farms in the U.S. are family owned. Prime agriculural land The most productive farmland. Relationshi of Farming
to Other Buninesses Agribusiness Commercial agriculture characterized by the integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations. Agribusiness encompasses such diverse enterprises as tractor manufacturing, fertilizer production, and seed distribution. Commercial farmers make heavy use of modern communications and information technology to stay in touch and keep track of prices, yields, and expenditures.
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