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Psychological Perspectives on Gender Midterm
Transcript of Psychological Perspectives on Gender Midterm
definition of sexism & 2 types (+ & -)
define, compare and contrast sex & gender Sex Stereotypes Definition Sexism Definition Sex Vs. Gender Socially shared beliefs that certain qualities can be assigned to individuals based on their membership in the female or male half of the human race.
Can be influenced on the basis of race, age, religion, height, social class, etc. Examples Females Males soft
dominant Definition Sex Gender Refers to the biological categories of males and females, categories distinguished by genes, chromosomes and hormones. Refers to the social categories of male and female.
Distinguished from one another by a set of psychological features and role attributes that society has assigned to the biological category of sex.
Gender differs among cultures because each society has its own prescriptions for how men and women ought to behave. Sex Commonalities Compare & Contrast Gender Biological/anatomical differences between 2 sex types (more scientific)
Culture has no influence on one’s sex Socially reinforced
Societal expectations only reinforce 2 types
Treatment of a person is based on physical appearance (involves anatomical differences)
Based on society roles given to 2 different types Judgements about an individual (Prejudice) based on a person's behavior. Types of Sexism Neosexism Pro male bias, less likely to support women Modern Sexism Basically there is no support towards policies that may enhance a woman's status, denial of woman still being discriminated against Benevolent Sexism (Positive) protective, idealization of women, desire for intimate relations
men need to be taken care of
women shouldn't have to open the car door Hostile Sexism (Negative) dominance-oriented, derogatory beliefs about women, heterosexual hostility
Ex: resenting one sex for belief that they have inferior qualities to one's own sex Know the definition and meaning of the 7 theories of development
Define gender role strain and be able to identify examples
Define gender identify and be able to identify examples
Be able to identify the differences between sex, gender, gender identify, and gender expression, and sexual orientation Theoretical Perspectives Gender Identity Gender Identity: our perception of the self as psychologically male or female. The Difference Stereotypes are activated immediately upon meeting someone = first thing you notice about a person is his or her sex Social Structure/ Cultural
Theory Psychoanalytic/ Identification
Theory States that children learn gender appropriate behaviors by watching/observing the same sex parent.
Children encounter a stage when they become jealous of their same sex parent.
Females go through Electra Complex
Males encounter Oedipus Complex
Children go through 5 stages:
Genital Social Interaction
Process Theory Focus on way that people interact w/ their environment
Social Learning/ Social Cognitive
Theory Gender and identity are learned directly through positive and negative reinforcement and indirectly through observations and modeling Cognitive Theories Gender cannot be learned until a child reaches a particular stage of intellectual development. Biosocial Theory Male/Female differences come from the interaction between biological sex differences and social expectations
Men are competitive due to social expectations and due to the rise of testosterone levels during competition.
Women have strong maternal feelings towards child bearing due to cultural pressures and changes in hormones.
Different social expectations caused by:
Physical appearances Evolutionary Theory States that power differences between sexes results from the natural and inevitable outcome of our genetic heritage.
Focuses on the social aspect of gender roles and why society supports this teaching. 2 Themes:
1. Power and Status: Women are underrepresented at the top levels of business.
2. Division of Labor: Men have greater control due to their higher paying careers and status, therefore they are supporters. By nursing infants, women have a natural instinct and tendency to nurture others as well, therefore are more submissive towards men Men attempt to mate with as many women as possible to maximize their chances of creating a good gene.
Women tent to be more selective by only choosing the best mates and "trick" them into monogamy. 3-5 years: Child acquires "gender constancy" (an understanding that a person's gender is fixed and cannot be changed by hairstyle, name, or dress.
Awareness that 2 sexes exist is acquired around 3 years.
Schema Theory: a structure that guides the way that we categorize things.
*Strength of gender schema is based on degree of socialization 2 Processes:
Interactional Continuity Interactive model of gender-related behavior
All use the gender belief system Gender Role Strain Gender Role Strain: A phenomenon that occurs when the gender role expectations have negative consequences for the individual. Occurs when gender role expectations conflict with naturally occurring tendencies or personal desires. 2 Theories: 1. Self Role Discrepancy: strain arises when you fail to live up to the gender role that society has constructed.
Man who is not athletic/unemployed, woman who is not attractive/doesn’t want children. Consequences of Gender Role Strain Men:
- Increased alcohol abuse and psychological distress.- Less likely to seek support or mental health care. 2. Socialized dysfunctional characteristic: strain arises when the gender roles that society instills contain inherently dysfunctional personality characteristics. -Male: inhibition of emotional expression-Female: includes dependency Women:
- Increase in symptoms of depression.
- Especially prevalent when women are in settings usually traditionally held by men (law school, medical school, etc) Biological Sex Male Intersex Female Gender Identity Man Woman Genderqueer (psychological sense of self) (anatomy, chromosomes, hormones) Gender Expression Masculine Androgynous Feminine (communication of gender) Sexual Orientation Attracted to women Attracted to men Bisexual/Asexual (romantic erotic response) Transgender: biological sex is not congruent with their psychological sex. Transexual: a person whose sex has been biologically changed to match their psychological sex. Intersex: persons born with ambiguous genitals. Typically have surgery to alter their genitals so that they can be consistent biologically. What to know: Be able to discuss concerns pertaining to researching sex and gender