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Theoretical Foundations

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on 3 January 2015

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Transcript of Theoretical Foundations

Theoretical Foundations
Theoretical Foundations
Cognitive Perspectives
A learner is viewed as an active processor of information because cognitive theories suggest that learning occurs within a hidden process inside the brain.
Constructivism
We construct our own understanding of the world by reflecting on experiences.
Discovery Learning
Requires students to ask
Behaviorism
A theory that focuses on studying observable behaviors and defines learning as the acquisition of new behaviors.
Radical Constructivism
Eliminating standard curriculum and grades
Hands-on problem solving
Customized curricula

Operant Conditioning
Classical Conditioning
Behaviorists use conditioning as a universal learning process.
Giving a reward or reinforcement after a response to a stimuli to create a more probable response in the future
Responses are thought to be chosen, not natural, and uncontrollable.
Bloom's Taxonomy
1. Cognitive Domains -
Types of Knowledge
1.
Metacognitive:
awareness of how one learns and self knowledge
2. Affective Domains -
3. Psychomotor Domains -
2.
Procedural:
knowledge of how to perform an action or task
3.
Strategic:
knowledge of how to apply principles and experiences to new situations
4.
Declarative:
knowledge of data, concepts, and facts
exploration
manipulation
conversation
models
exemplars
discourse
VERY RARE!!! VERY EXTREME!!
Behaviorism
Constructivism
Cognitive - Perspectives
"Feedback System"
A natural response to certain stimuli that suggests "wiring" within humans and animals.
desirable outcome
undesirable outcome
punishment
positive
negative
biological
innate
Pavlov
conditioned
unconditioned
to formulate their own answers in order to deduce principles from their own experiences.
participation
independent
Bruner
inquiry
Inquiry Based Learning
Poses questions to the learner, rather than stating established facts.
problem-solving
facilitator
research
projects
Full transcript