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Chapter 2.1: Describing Matter
Transcript of Chapter 2.1: Describing Matter
Unit 2: Physical Science
Chapter 2.1 Describing Matter
There are two
types of mixtures:
Heterogeneous mixtures are mixtures where you can see the different parts.
Homogeneous mixtures are mixtures where you cannot see the different parts.
Remember, mixtures are not chemically combined, so each part of the mixture keeps its original properties.
A Mixture is made of two or more substances (elements or compounds) that are not chemically combined.
Matter has two properties:
#1: Physical Properties--traits (or characteristics) of a substance that you can observe without changing your substance into another substance
#2: Chemical Properties--traits that can only be observed when you do change one substance into another
Let's play a game: Physical or Chemical Property?
Every element has a different set of properties and which are due to the number and arrangement of the atoms. Anytime you have some matter that is made of the same number of atoms--either in a specific combination or all the same atom--we call it a substance.
So no matter what your matter is, all matter is made of combinations of elements (elements are the most basic substance) and elements are, in turn, made of atoms.
The Periodic Table of Elements lists the names of all the known elements, plus some information about the properties of the element such as state and mass.
One atom is considered matter--it is, in fact, the smallest unit of matter--but, of course, you need many atoms and molecules in order to see it or mess around with it or blow it up.
Groups of two or more atoms are called molecules and a molecule can be a combination of a single type of atom or many different types of atoms.
When you have a compound, the new substance has different properties than the original elements. For example:
Oxygen (O) is what our cells use to make energy. It's good for us!
Carbon (C) is one of the most common elements in our bodies--there's so much of it in our bodies, it is essential to all life on this planet.
If you combine one O atom with one C atom, you get the compound Carbon Monoxide (CO), which is a gas that is odorless, colorless, tasteless, and very deadly if you inhale enough of it.
A compound is a substance that is made of two or more elements and combined into molecules--and those molecules are then combined to each other chemically.
Scientists classify, or organize, matter based on how it is mixed. So far, we've only reviewed substances, which is matter that has one kind of atom. There are two broad categories of "mixed" matter: compounds and mixtures.
IF YOU'RE EVER ON JEOPARDY!
In order to separate the parts of a compound from each other, you must put it through a chemical change--that is, your compound has to undergo a chemical reaction:
Only one type of atom? Element!
Different types of atoms arranged in a set ratio? Compound!
Different types of atoms, but no set ratio? Mixture!