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Canada in the 1960s
Transcript of Canada in the 1960s
For up to 20 years, Premier Maurice Duplessis, ruled Quebec almost single handedly. It was an era of stability and traditional values.
•Steady industrialization of the economy changed the way Canadians lived and work
•1960s workers had well-paying jobs (most people) but wages for men and women weren't equal. No matter what the job is even if it's considered a girls job, men will be paid 2x as much as girls
•Almost every industry was growing (lumber, vehicle manufacturing, etc.)
•Women are able to get a paying job, but the problem was that they still had to do their domestic responsibilities at home as well, so basically they have 2 jobs, one that pays and one that doesn’t
Teen Musical icons:
• Elvis Presley ( rock and roll, blues, gospel, hippy, country)
• *British* the Beatles (pop, rock, country rock, hard rock)
• *British the rolling stones ( heavy metal rock, pop, blues
• the Floyd (rock)
• Tina turner (pop, rock)
• Aretha Franklin (rock, blues, jazz, pop)
• Frank Sinatra (swing, pop, jazz)
Canada 100th Birthday:
•Canada turns 100 on July1st, 1967
•Biggest birthday party in the nation’s history
•Queen Elizabeth cut the biggest birthday cake ever made in Canada
Quebec's Quiet Revolution
Duplessis view of Canada was simple: Co-operation always and assimilation never. Duplessis later died in 1959 of a stroke.
1960: The liberals were led by the energetic new leader, Jean Lesage. Lesage's Liberals received 51.5% of the popular vote. With this, Lesage assumed power in Quebec. The Union Nationale tried to buy votes for their party at $25 apiece and to provide false documentation to known supporters, allowing them to vote several times. These attempts failed.
The survivance mentality was replaced in 1962 with a Maitre chez nous (Masters in our own house) philosophy. This was driven by a desire to be equal to the English Canadians.
-Facilitate the speedy modernization of Quebec
-Ensure the survival of the French language and culture in Quebec
- Achieve full equality in the Canadian partnership
-Place the Quebec economy in the hands of the citizens of Quebec
Lesage relied on Rene Levesque, a journalist who was recognized through CBCs French language. This was referred to as the Quebec's quiet revolution
Lesage made some changes in Quebec from 1960-1966. Some changes were:
-The political and social influence of the Catholic Church declined
-Educational system was modernized
-Medical services were brought under Government control rather than church control
-Labor code was revised to provide additional protection for workers and unions
-Women were made equal to men
-Voting age was reduced from 21 to 18
-Provincial pension plan was established
-Artistic expression flourished
-Rates and services were established
-Rates and services were standardized across the province
Quebec felt that the quiet revolution wasn't going far enough and that they needed to act violently towards the English speaking Canadians. Rene Levesque was one of many who became separatists. This means she wanted full Independence for Quebec and felt like that was the only solution. In 1963, Royal commission on bilingualism and biculturalism was formed in order for the french and English relationship to improve. To avoid break these were recommended:
-English and French are official languages
-Canadian should learn both languages
-French should become the official language of business in Quebec
-English Canada should be more understanding of French Canadians and their culture
-French speaking communist outside of Canada should also be protected
-People of Quebec should feel that all of Canada is their homeland
Terrorism Comes to Canada
May 17, 1963, Sergeant-Major Walter Leja was trying to dismantle a bomb when the bomb exploded. 5 other bombs that were placed in mailboxes also exploded on that same day in the wealthy English section of Montreal known as Westmount. Another three had been dismantled successfully by army experts. Urban terrorism, the doing of rebels for decades through out the world, was now a reality in Canada. The Front de Liberation du Quebec (FLQ) took responsibility for the bombings. Originally they use simple fire bombs, but gradually more complex explosives were used. On the site of the very first bombing, "Vive le Quebec Libre," which means, long live a free Quebec.
June 17, 1963, 17 college-aged "terrorist" were arrested for the Westmount bombings. Of those 15 were convicted and sentenced to jail. However, in January of 1964, armouries in the Montreal area were being robbed by gangs of armed youths. They took army trucks full of weapons and ammunition. The group has prepared themselves for more violent confrontations. February 13, 1969, a bomb exploded in the Montreal stock exchange, injuring 27 people and causing 1 million dollars worth of damage. No one was killed but the worst was yet to come.
Birth of the New Democratic Party
In 1961, a large convention was held in Ottawa to form a new alternative political party. The New Democratic Party (NDP) was created. This new change was a product of how the CCF (Co-operative Commonwealth Federation) had trouble gaining voters after World War Two. Some Canadians related the CCF to the Great Depression. Many Young voters saw the CCF as old fashioned. The NDP became the voice of social reform in Canada. The NDP was new and advanced.
The 1960s was known as the decade of change in the political, economic, cultural, social, leisure aspects.
• Economic relation between Canada and America continued to improve
• Economic slowdown (late 50s early 60s) made Canadians concerned about protecting their jobs
• "buy Canadian" campaigns were launched to remind consumers to buy Canadian products because this helped people keep their jobs
• Many new products increased the demand for American producers to make the products
• Americans continue to open branch plants in. Canada to serve Canadian consumers
• Product demand increased with intro to plastic credit cards (late 60s)
• Names of credit card included: Chargex-Visa, Mastercharge- MasterCard
• 1965 CAN-US automotive products trade agreement (auto pact) was signed to permit the free movement of new cars, trucks and automotive parts across the border (before 15percent on imported cars/parts from US, for protection)
• Auto pact allowed American branch plants in Canada operate without paying tariffs when objects crossed the border, in return jobs were guaranteed for Canadian workers
• Wages increased, while prices remained competitive, because automobile production was more efficient
• Walton Gordon got concerned about rate of US investment in Canada , he warned Canadians that their ability to shape their economic future was in danger due to foreign investment in Canada
• 1967 81% of total foreign investment in Canada ($34.7 billion) was from US source
• Public opinion shifted to the point where by 1967 2/3 Canadians wanted government to control foreign investment in Canada
• In 1960 Diefenbaker promoted development of the north by building roads also helped western farmers by selling large amounts of wheat to China and soviet union, despite objections of US
• Throughout the period inflations remained low (avg 1%-2%), except for about 5% inflation in the late 60’s
• World trade expanded from 1948-1973 at an avg rate of 7%,while the US was only by 2%
• 1961 all the provinces had agreed to a federal cost-sharing program for hospital insurance, and universal medical insurance was instituted in 1966. Within five years universal health insurance was implemented in every province. It was a prosperous time for most Canadians
• People were consuming more (retail sales rose more than $20 billion), buying more cars (registrations up 40%), purchasing more homes and going to school in record numbers (enrollment doubled during this period to 285 000, quadruple that of the 1950s). By the end of the sixties, central heating, electric appliances, and hot/cold running water were accessible in all but the poorest of regions.
• Automobile registration increased to the point that most people had their own vehicle, some people even had two or three
• New medical technologies and the discovery of the polio vaccine, life expectancy rose 5.5% for men and 9.5% for women.
Inventions of the 1960s:
•The audio cassette invented.
•Space war, the first computer video game invented
•The video disk invented
•The ATM invented.
•BASIC (an early computer language) is invented by John George Kemeny and Tom Kurtz.
•The first handheld calculator invented.
• The stroll
• The twist
• Mashed potatoes
• The Monkey, the Dog, and the Frug---everyone at BYU was doing them; that is, until President Wilkinson gave a controversial speech at the beginning of the year banning all fad dances.
• The Madison
• 1960 Psycho
• 1967 Bonnie and Clyde
• 1968 Night of the Living Dead
• 1964 Mary Poppins
• Suits were printed
• Bow ties were more popular then ties
• Blazers were brightly colored
• Printed shorts right before the knees
• Bell bottom jeans and white t-shirts with leather jackets (aka bad boys)
• Varsity jackets
• White and black shoes
• ‘Low’- high heel
• Floral or striped/dotted dresses
• Sleeveless blouses
• Tight fitted around waist then flows right before the knees
• Fur coats for the wealthy
• Collard dress
• Lace shoes
• Platform shoes
• Circle shaped sunglasses
The culture in the 1960’s has been one of the most fun filled eras sine the 1930’s. It has a new variety of music, fashion, films, perspective and dance has changed slightly. We are introduced to new artistic icons that we know today as “legends” such as “the king of rock”, “the British invasion” etc. As we transition from the 50’s to the 60’s we see a change in music. We start to hear more rock and pop. Other genres include blues, jazz, swing, gospel, hippy, country and heavy metal. These genres captivated teens into changing the people they listened to; their older siblings are listening to the more 50’s records while the preteens and teens are hearing more of Elvis, The Drifters, etc. the most popular and known artists were Frank Sinatra, Aretha Franklin, Tina turner, the Floyd, the rolling stones, the Beatle and Elvis Presley. Although music hasn’t altered as much the love and meaning to music hasn’t changed one bit. Music was used for entertainment, a relaxant, in films and in homes.
Dance has always been a way to blow off steam, to have fun or show emotion. Dance has changed in a way where it becomes more inclusive, such as synchronized dances in music videos, dance moves correspond to a certain song such as “mashed potatoes”. Dances have moved from random flips and slides, it more of simpler dances that most people would do but when a dance reflects on one or more individuals they bring out the classic moves that everyone enjoys watching. Films had been a tradition for decades already but from 1960 to 1969 we are introduced to color films such as the classics Bonnie and Clyde, and Mary Poppins from the black and white films like Night of the Living Dead and Psycho. Films were used for the same purposes but shortened and used more dialogue then constantly using a voiceover or sound effects and background music. Television had only three channels that consisted of ABC, NBC and CBS. Television either worked through a pair of antennas or a single antenna on the roof. Although they were affordable and every family had one, color TV’s were ay too expensive for middle class families.
Fashion hasn’t changed much expect for the new trends like the hippies or bad boy look. Men still wore suits but often wore funky colored suits and white shoes with black soles and laces. Boys the ages 14-19 tended to wear loose jeans (or bell bottoms) with white shirts and black bulky leather jackets to look bad ort dangerous. Boys better behaved wore bell bottoms with varsity jackets (mostly because they played sports). Girls started teasing their hair and wore thick eyeliner. It was “either your hair is huge or falls flat down your back”. They often wore dresses that weren’t fitting all or just fitted at the top half. Leather was really in most of the time. Also hippies have started peeking in the late 60’s. Lots of prints and optical illusions were worn.
Decade of Rapid Social Change:
•Work done hand were now done my machines
•More expensive products (wood and metal) were made
•Improved electronics: high sound and colour (television) in the late 60s
•Development of birth control pills
Women in the 1960s:
•Demanded more equality
•Entered into the work force
•Were paid less than men for the same work
Conflicting Viewpoints on French Language Rights:
•Official language of business community in Quebec (English)
•People who spoke English got better paying jobs
French and English Relations
•1963 Royal Commission found ways to improved relations between French and English Canadians
•English and French should both be official languages of Canada
•Canadians would be encouraged to learn both official languages
•French would become the official business language of Quebec
•Immigrants preferred to learn English
Hollywood was in an economic decline during the 1960s; the society was rapidly developing, leaving Hollywood to seem uninteresting and old-fashioned (this was earlier in the decade). However, Hollywood became popular again due to the influences of these movements:
- French New Wave
- American Underground Cinema
- New Italian Cinema
- Feminist Films
- Direct Cinema
- Third World Cinema
- Eastern European Cinema
The Olympics and General Sports
Canada’s most beloved and national sport is hockey. Though it wasn’t given an exact day of creation, it is believed to have been a form of shinny. Now that the television has been invented, hockey fans in this decade were able to enjoy watching an actual hockey match; the first ever televised game was between the Detroit Red Wings and the Montreal Canadiens on October 11, 1952.
There were a variety of activities that a person was able to do during the 1960s, but the most popular forms of these included watching/playing sports, going to the movies, and dancing.
Now that hockey fans know that they are able to watch hockey from the comfort of their own home (Hockey Night in Canada reborn!), the sales for the television increased 50 000 monthly.
The Canadian Football League was also popular during the 60s. Its early years began with the donation of the “Grey Cup” by Earl Grey in 1909. From then onward, teams from the Canadian Rugby Union have competed for this trophy. Later on, only teams from the CFL competed for it.
- 1961: the first overtime game was a Winnipeg victory over Hamilton (21-14) at the CNE
- 1962: the Canadian Football Hall of Fame was built in Hamilton
- 1962: the Grey Cup game was completed in two days due to weather conditions
Here are some of Canada’s Olympic achievements:
- Canada won second place in Men’s Ice Hockey (Olympics 1960)
- Canada won third place in Men’s Ice Hockey (Olympics 1968)
- Four medals were earned in swimming; 3 silver, 1 bronze (Olympics 1968)
- Won a gold medal in a rowing team event (Olympics 1964)
- Won gold in an equestrian jumping team event (Olympics 1968)
Russ Jackson playing for the Ottawa Rough Riders
1966: This picture was used to advertise the first ever hockey season to be aired in colour