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HIV/AIDS

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Aubrey Lockwood

on 8 April 2015

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Transcript of HIV/AIDS

HIV/AIDS
How Common is HIV/AIDS
As of 2011, 1.2 million people in the United States are living with HIV.
What is HIV AIDS?
HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. The virus affects CD4 cells (or T-cells), and, over time, the HIV virus can destroy so many of these cells that the body is unable to fight off disease. Once a person’s CD4 cell count drops below 100 cells per cubic millimeter of blood they are diagnosed with AIDS, or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
How do children become infected?
Most HIV-positive children under the age of 13 are infected during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. Before 1985 HIV infection also occurred through received blood transfusions.
Did you know?
You can also be diagnosed with AIDS, regardless of your CD4 count, if development of an opportunistic infection (or OI) while having HIV occurs.
In 2009, an estimated 10,834 children were living with HIV who were 13 years or younger, and in 2010, about 217 new cases of HIV were discovered.

*This statistic only includes data from 46 states.
Resources
What does this mean for teachers?
Confidentiality
Florida currently has two HIV disclosure statutes in place:
Fla. Stat. Ann. § 384.24 states that a person with a positive HIV status must disclose this information and receive consent before engaging in sexual activity with a partner.
Fla. Stat. Ann §381.0041 (11)(b) prohibits a knowing HIV positive individual from donating blood, plasma, organs, skin or other human tissue.
All other situations or circumstances that arise in an HIV positive individuals life, legally, does not require disclosure.
As educators, we may not be aware of each child’s special needs, in this case ones HIV status, but by providing an inclusive environment we will be able to support each child more effectively.
What's inclusion?
To create an inclusive environment, regardless of disability, teachers should make sure they include all children. In addition, it is essential that teachers:
provide a safe environment
are culturally sensitive
promote healthy lifestyle skills
involve families in the learning community
make learning relevant
promote class participation
help develop a child's self-esteem
How do you build and inclusive classroom?
How does HIV effects children?
What treatment do HIV positive children receive?
What support services are available for children with HIV?
Antiretroviral therapy, commonly referred to as ART, is used to help suppress the virus and stop its progression. ART will will vary child-to-child depending on many factors, such as age, weight, CD4 cell count, etc.
In the article Education of Children With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection the American Academy of Pediatrics stated, “The majority of children with HIV infection reaching school age have normal cognitive function.5–8 When symptoms develop in a child or adolescent with HIV infection, central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction can occur and cause a decrease in cognitive function followed by a decline in academic performance.”

Luckily studies show that ART can improve neurodevelopmental function. It also showed that with optimal therapy a delay or prevention in CNS dysfunction could occur.

In the article
Education of Children With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
the American Academy of Pediatrics stated, “The majority of children with HIV infection reaching school age have normal cognitive function. When symptoms develop in a child or adolescent with HIV infection, central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction can occur and cause a decrease in cognitive function followed by a decline in academic performance.” 3

Luckily studies show that ART can improve neurodevelopmental function. It also showed that with optimal therapy a delay or prevention in CNS dysfunction could occur.

An IEP (Individualized Education Plan) provides individualized special education and any related services needed to meet a child’s needs. This is possible through a federal education law known as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act or IDEA.

A child with HIV may be eligible to receive special education services under the eligibility category of “Other Health Impairment.”

IEP
504 Plan:
IFSP
A 504 Plan provides services and any changes a learning environment needs in order to meet a child’s needs. This is possible through a federal civil rights law, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973.


A child can be eligible for a 504 Plan as the U S. Department of Education states, “Section 504 protects individuals infected by AIDS on the basis of any actual, past or perceived effect of HIV infection that substantially limits any major life activity so long as the individual is otherwise qualified. Since AIDS damages many of the body's systems, such as the hemic (blood), lymphatic, reproductive, and other systems, persons with AIDS are often substantially limited in a major life activity due to physical impairment.” 5

Recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics:

1. All children with HIV should have the same right as those without the virus to attend school and receive high-quality educational services.

2. Children with HIV should have access to special education and other related services in line with their needs as the disease progresses.

3. Mechanisms for administering medications should be in place at all schools. This should also include appropriate facilitation of specific needs for fluids or bathroom privileges while still maintaining confidentiality.

4. Continuity of education encompassing traditional school, medical day treatment programs, and home schooling.

5. Confidentiality of HIV infection. Disclosure can be given only with the consent of the parent(s) or legal guardian(s) and age-appropriate assent of the student.

6. The pediatrician should maintain communication with the school in order to facilitate the education of children.


What should teachers and schools keep in mind?
An IFSP, or Individualized Family Services Plan, is a developed for children under three years old. This is similar to the Individualized Education Program but is more focused on the family and on therapies that can help children before school begins.
This is possible through the same federal education law which up holds IEP's, The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act or IDEA.


Teachers should be understanding and meet the accommodations listed in a child’s IEP, 504 Plan, or IFSP. Teachers are not in charge of deciding which support program is in place, but is a key member when it comes to the develop, evaluation, and execution of said program.
Now what?
Care for children affected by HIV/AIDS. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.etu.org.za/toolbox/docs/aids/childcare.html

Conway, M. (2005). HIV in Schools-Good practice guide to supporting children infected or affected by HIV. HIV Association for the UK and Ireland. Retrieved February 21, 2015, from http://www.chiva.org.uk/files/repository/pdf/hivforum_schoolsgpg.pdf

"Education of Children With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection." AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS 105.6 (2000). Committee of Pediatrics AIDS. Web. 1 Apr. 2015. <http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/105/6/1358.full.pdf>.

Heymann, J., Sherr, L., & Kidmen, R. (2012). Healthy minds: Psychosocial interventions for school-aged children affected by HIV/AIDS. Protecting Childhood in the AIDS Pandemic: Finding Solutionsthat Work, 119-143. Retrieved February 21, 2015, from http://www.academia.edu/4825097/Healthy_minds_Psychosocial_interventions_for_school-aged_children_affected_by_HIV_AIDS

HIV Treatment for Children. (2014, November 8). Retrieved February 21, 2015, from http://www.avert.org/hiv-treatment-children.htm

"Placement of School Children With Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)." <i>U.S. Department of Education</i> (1991). <i>U.S. Department of Education</i>. Web. 1 Apr. 2015. &lt;http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/hq53e9.html&gt;.

Richter, L., Sherr, L., Adato, M., Belsey, M., Chandan, U., Desmond, C., ... Wakhweya, A. (2009). Strengthening families to support children affected by HIV and AIDS. AIDS Care, 3-12. Retrieved February 21, 2015, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2903779/

Telling other people that your child has HIV. (2010, January). Retrieved February 21, 2015, from http://www.aidsmap.com/Telling-other-people-that-your-child-has-HIV/page/1374811/

Sheckler, P. (1993). When a Student Is HIV Positive. Educational Leadership, 50(4), 55-56. Retrieved February 21, 2015, from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/dec92/vol50/num04/When-a-Student-Is-HIV-Positive.aspx

SUPPORTING STUDENTS WITH HIV/AIDS. (2012). National Association of School Psychologist. Retrieved February 21, 2015, from http://www.nasponline.org/about_nasp/positionpapers/hivaids.pdf

What are some unique ways to support a child with HIV?
At times students with HIV can go through periods of absences due to doctor appointments, a CD4 cell count drop, a change in their ART, or because they developed an OI. In order to be supportive during times of absence, teachers can create an online platform where video taped lessons are displayed, links to class assignments posted, and a drop box where students can submit completed work for their teachers review. This tactic would also benefit other students by allowing them to review a lesson they didn’t quite catch in class or even print off a homework sheet they forgot to bring home.
Having knowledge about local HIV/AIDS support organizations, groups, and clinics can be a big help, not only for families affected by the virus but for parents who would like more information on the subject. This can include getting tested, easing concerns of their child being in a classroom with a student who has HIV, or finding possible ways to support those affected. Parents may even come to teachers for advice on sharing a HIV status, whether it’s telling a child of their positive status or sharing a family members positive status with them
Tip 2
Tip 1
Tip 3
Once a student reveals their status teachers could complete a lesson on HIV/AIDS to help everyone in the class develop a firm understanding of the disease before they fall victims to poor information from those who have a negative impression of the disease.

This inclusive method comes from an article in Educational Leadership entitled, When a Student is HIV Positive. This article explains how Melissa, an elementary grade student, decides to share that she has HIV with her classmates. But before sharing her story, the school staff collaborated with the school district on ways to safeguard the children while simultaneously educating the community. The day Melissa reveled her secret her mother came to the classroom to support Melissa while she discussed her health condition. At the end of the day students were sent home with a letter for their parents addressing concerns, offering assurances, the county policy on HIV/AIDS, and how Melissa ended up contracting HIV. The letter also invited parents to an information meeting about HIV/AIDS where district and county officials spoke along with Mellissa’s doctor and other medical personnel.

Pop Questions!
1. Do you feel that children and their families should be required to disclose their HIV status? Why or why not?
2. Does your school or county currently have an HIV/AIDS policy in place?
Pop Question!
Would you like to know if a child in your class was HIV positive? Why or why not?
Pop Question!
1. What would you do if you were informed a student in your classroom was HIV positive?

2. What would be an example of a developmentally appropriate lesson on HIV/AIDS?

3. How would you handle any negative reactions from students and their families?


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