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Unit 1 2013

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Courtney Comperry

on 5 September 2013

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Transcript of Unit 1 2013

4.12 x 10 m
3.34 x 10 mm
UNIT 1:
INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY, MATTER, AND MATH OF CHEMISTRY
CHEMISTRY:
the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and the changes it undergoes.
BRANCHES
OF CHEMISTRY
Organic
Inorganic
Physical
Analytical
Biochemistry
Theoretical
study of carbon containing compounds.
the study of compounds that do NOT contain carbon.
the study of the properties and changes of matter and their relation to energy.
the identification of the components and composition of materials.
the substances and processes occurring in living things.
the use of math and computers to understand chemical behavior and predict properties of new compounds.
Matter: anything that has
mass
and takes up space
Mass: a measure of the amount of
matter
What units do we measure mass in?
usually grams (g)
An
atom
is the smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element.
An
element
is a pure substance made of only one kind of atom.
A
compound
is a substance that is made from the atoms of two or more elements that are chemically bonded.
Elements are found on the Periodic Table!
Periodic Table Tile

Extensive Properties:
Depend on the amount of matter that is present.
Intensive Properties:
Depend on the type of matter present.
ex: volume & mass
ex: melting point, boiling point, & density
Physical Property
Chemical Property
a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance.
a substance's ability to undergo changes that transform into different substances.
1. color
2. burn

ID as physical or chemical properties
3. conductivity
4. rust
P
C
P
C
Physical Change
the composition of the matter does NOT change!!!
Chemical Change
substances are converted into different substances.
1. cutting grass
2. burning wood
3. breaking glass
4. food digesting
5. boiling water
6. ice melting
P
C
P
C
P
P
Law of Conservation of Mass
"Mass cannot be created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction."
Mixture
You've already learned what an element and a compound is.. so whats a..
A blend of two or more kinds of matter, each which retains its own identity and properties.
ANSWER WITH YOUR FEET
1. Salt
2. Block of Iron
3. Glass of Cola
4. Mercury in a Thermometer
5. Ice
6. Vinegar and Oil
7. Copper Wire
8. Earth's Atmosphere, when dusty
9. Earth's Atmosphere, when dust free
10. Rust
11. Brass
12. Aluminum Foil
13. Homogenized Milk
14. Sugar
15. Sugar Water
16. Sandy Water
18. Blood
17. Neon Gas in a Neon Sign
Using the models in front of you, diagram each of the following:
element
compound
heterogeneous mixture
homogeneous mixture
SI Units of Measurement
volume
density
the amount of space occupied by an object
units: mL or cm
3
the ratio of mass to volume
units: g/mL
density = -----------
mass
volume
A sample of aluminum metal has a mass of 8.4 g. The volume of the sample is 3.1 mL. Calculate the density.
Answer
2.7 g/mL
DO NOT FORGET YOUR UNITS
example problem:
Accuracy
Precision
how close a measurement is to the accepted value
how close the measurements are to each other
ERROR IN MEASUREMENT
always estimate a measured value to one questionable digit!!
Scientific Notation Review
M x 10
n
M = a number greater than or equal to 1 but less than 10
n = a whole number
0.00012 mm = 1.2 x 10 mm
-4
65000 km = 6.5 x 10 km
4
negative exponents move the decimal back to the left
positive exponents move the decimal back to the right.
PRACTICE
Write the following numbers in scientific notation.
1.) 560000 g
2.) 33400 mm
3.) 0.0004120 m

5.6 x 10 g
5
4
-4
Significant Figures
all the digits known with certainty plus one final digit in a measurement.
P
A
Rules for Significant Figures!
If a decimal is present start from the Pacific side. (left)
If a decimal is absent start from the Atlantic side. (right)
Count the first nonzero digit you encounter and ALL digits after that!
5
6
4
3
4
3
5
1
1
6
5
6
Critical Thinking Question
Suppose the value "seven thousand centimeters" is reported to you. How should the number be expressed if it is intended to contain the following?
1 significant figure
4 significant figures
6 significant figures
7000 cm
7000. cm
7000.00 cm
Why must we use significant figures in calculating answers?
Because the answers given on a calculator can be derived results with more digits than are justified by the measurements.
RULES
When adding or subtracting decimals, the answer must have the same number of digits to the right of the decimal point as there are in the measurement with the fewest digits to the right of the decimal.
FOR ADDING AND SUBTRACTING
25.1 g
+ 2.03 g

27.13 g
27.1 g


FOR MULTIPLYING AND DIVIDING
RULES
The answer can have no more significant figures than are in the measurement with the fewest number of significant figures
density =
mass
volume
=
3.05 g
8.47 mL
= 0.360094451
g
mL
=0.360
g
mL
169.0
582.8
2026.8
90.
11
0.81
417
2.8 x 10
3
28.6
61.25
11.000
159
What about units?
Adding with units
Subtracting with units
Multiplying with units
Dividing with units
5 g + 2 g =
7 g
6 g - 3 g =
3 g
4 m X 3 m =
12 m
2
16 m
2
_________
4 m
= 4 m
2 m X 2 m X 2 m =
8 m
3
The Mole
mol: the amount of substance that contains as many particles as there are atoms in exactly 12 g of carbon-12
the "mol" is a counting unit just like "dozen"
Avogadro's Number
6.02 x 10
23
the number of particles in exactly one mole of a pure substance
MISSING POSTER
You are to create a missing poster for a lost measurement.
The poster must include:
Any number less than 1 OR greater than 10, with units! (ex: 0.0670 mm or 13,500 ft)
A paragraph describing the measurements last known whereabouts and what to do if the measurement in found.
The number written in scientific notation.
How many significant figures are in the number.
You must use color and be creative!
If you spread Avogadro's number of unpopped popcorn kernels across the USA, the entire country would be covered in popcorn to a depth of over 9 miles.
MOLAR MASS
The mass of one mole of a substance
units: g/mol
He 4.00 g/mol
Li 6.94 g/mol
H O 17.99 g/mol
2
The molar mass of an element is numerically equal to the atomic mass of the element in atomic mass units.
Conversion Factors
a ratio derived from the equality between two different units that can be used to convert between units.
4 quarters = 1 dollar
4 quarters
4 quarters
1 dollar
1 dollar
Lets use the "bridge" method to determine how many
quarters are in 12 dollars...
12 dollars
4 quarters
1 dollar
= 48 quarters
Use the bridge method to complete the following metric conversions:
1.) 10.5 g = ____ kg
Remember these prefixes?
2.) 1.2 L = ____ mL
3.) 1.57 km = ____ m
10.5 g
1000 g
1 kg
= 0.0105 kg
1.2 L
1 L
1000 mL
1.57 km
1 km
1000 m
Don't count significant figures in the conversion factor.
= 1200 mL
= 1570 m
mole-mass conversions
# grams A = 1 mol A
1 mol A
# grams A
1 mol A
# grams A
"A" has to be the same substance. You cannot use this conversion factor to convert between different substances.
How many grams of Helium are there in 2.00 moles of Helium?
ex:
2 mol He
1 mol He
4.00 g He
= 8.00
g He
SET UP BRIDGES ON YOUR WHITEBOARDS FOR THE FOLLOWING PROBLEMS:
1. What is the mass in grams of 3.50 mol of the element copper, Cu?
2. How many moles of calcium, Ca, are in 5.00 g of calcium?
3.50 mol Cu
1 mol Cu
63.55 g Cu
= 222 g Cu
5.00 g Ca
40.08 g Ca
1 mol Ca
= 0.125 mol Ca
Avogadro's Number Conversions
(or particles)
1 mol A
1 mol A
6.02 X 10 atoms A
(or particles)
(or particles)
23
6.02 X 10 atoms A
23
6.02 X 10 atoms A = 1 mol A
23
Use Avogadro's number to convert between moles and atoms/particles.
Ex:
1. How many moles of lead, Pb, are in 1.50 X 10 atoms of lead?
12
2. How many moles of tin, Sn, are in 2500 atoms of tin?
1.5 X 10 atoms Pb
12
6.02 X 10 atoms Pb
23
1 mol Pb
= 2.49 X 10 mol
-12
2500 atoms Sn
6.02 X 10 atoms Sn
23
1 mol Sn
= 4.2 X 10 mol
-21
TEXTBOOK PROBLEMS:
PAGE 296 # 13-15
PAGE 303 # 26&27
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