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PSY 1129 Week 5 Lecture

Chapter 5 - Foundations of Motivation
by

Neetu Dheri

on 16 October 2018

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Transcript of PSY 1129 Week 5 Lecture

Chapter 5: Foundations of Motivation
Chapters 6 and 7
Reflective Journal #1 DUE the night of Week 6 class - before midnight
Milestone #3 DUE - Company and OB Topic Choice
Week 5
PSY 1129: OrganizationalBehaviour
Team Research Project - Milestone #2 - Team Contract
Unit 2: Individual Behaviour
Chapter 5
: Foundations of Motivation
In-class Team Exercise: ROLE PLAY
Test #1 Q & A
Reflective Journal #1 - DUE NEXT WEEK
Milestone #3 - DUE NEXT WEEK
Agenda
WHAT
is
Motivation
?
"Psychological processes that arouse and direct goal-oriented behaviour."

Now we take what we have learned from Chapters 2 through 4 and attempt to answer the following question:
How do managers actually motivate employees to reach their highest potential on the job?

This chapter first highlights the various theories of motivation.
Two broad theoretical approaches
to Motivating Employees at Work:

Content/Need Theories

Focus on
internal factors
that energize employee motivation (needs = psycho/physio deficiencies);
how do we meet employees’ needs to induce motivation to do the job well?

Process Theories

Focus on explaining
the thought processes (cognition's)
that influence employee motivation;
look at employees’ thought processes and use this knowledge to guide managerial actions to motivate employees.
Theories of Motivation
Four (4)
Content Theories of Motivation:
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory
Alderfer’s ERG Theory
McClelland’s Need Theory
Hertzberg’s Motivation- Hygiene Theory

Three (3)
Process Theories of Motivation:
Adam's Equity Theory
Vroom's Expectancy Theory
Goal-Setting Theory
Get into 7 groups
Each group will be assigned a Motivation Theory and in 30 minutes:
Briefly describe the theory:
Who developed it?
What are the key elements/parts?
What does it say about motivation?
Outline the implications that the theory has for managers.
How do managers apply this theory when motivating employees?

Present your analysis to the class in a role play.
In-class Exercise
But what if it’s the job itself that is causing motivational problems?

Motivating employees by
creating motivating jobs
is also important.

We now turn to JOB DESIGN PRACTICES ...
Designing (or redesigning) Jobs
to increase
intrinsic motivation
Back to Chapter 5
When a manager suspects that a type of work that an employee is performing or that aspects of the work environment are causing motivational problems, the manager can correct the situation by using “job design” or “job redesign”
Job Design
= changing/altering the content and/or process of a specific job to
increase job satisfaction and job performance
.
Job design also attempts to
lower absenteeism and turnover
.

There are FOUR Approaches to Job Design
Motivating Employees Through
Job Design (aka Job Redesign)
Four Approaches to Designing Jobs
1. The Mechanistic Approach
2.
Motivational Approaches
Four Motivational Techniques/Strategies
a. Job Rotation
b. Job Enlargement (horizontal loading)
c. Job Enrichment (vertical loading)
d. Job Characteristics Model
3. Biological and Perceptual-Motor Approaches
4.
Time Shifting Approaches
Mechanistic Approach
Uses concepts from Frederick Taylor’s research in Scientific Management.
Jobs are designed in a “mechanical” way: they are highly specialized and standardized (simplified and repetitive tasks).

Pros:
Result is higher efficiency/productivity and higher proficiency since the jobs don’t change over time.

Cons:
Job dissatisfaction, stress, decreased sense of accomplishment and lack of personal growth.
Motivational Approaches
Attempt to improve
job satisfaction
and
intrinsic motivation
.
Four key motivational techniques
to consider when designing jobs:

1.
Job Rotation
: move employees from one specialized job to another similar job, on a rotating basis.

2.
Job Enlargement
: add variety; combine tasks of comparable difficulty (a.k.a.
horizontal loading
– more tasks).
E.g. Sales rep also delivers the product.

3.
Job Enrichment
: building achievement, recognition, stimulating work, responsibility and advancement into a job (a.k.a.
vertical loading
– more responsibility).
E.g. Having two people do all HR functions instead of a whole department.
Motivational Approaches - cont'd
4. The Job Characteristics Model
Based on work of two OB researchers, Hackman and Oldham, who tried to determine
how work can be structured so that employees are internally or intrinsically motivated?

Motivational Approaches - cont'd
The Job Characteristics Model
Internal work motivation is determined by three psychological states, which in turn are fostered by the presence of five core job dimensions (Figure 5.4).

The theory recognizes that not everyone does want a job containing high amounts of the five core job characteristics. Three attributes (moderators) affect how individuals respond to job enrichment.

Biological and Perceptual-Motor Approaches
4. Biological Approach
(biomechanics/ergonomics)
Design the work so that it reduces physical strain, fatigue and health complaints.
E.g. Option to stand in front of work computer.

5. Perceptual-Motor Approach
Focuses on human mental capabilities and limitations.
Goal = job shouldn't exceed person's mental capabilities, thus, design jobs by reducing information processing requirements (decrease cognitive demands).
Consider things like: error rates, accident rates, stress, etc.

Motivational Approaches - cont'd
Time Shifting Approaches
Alternative work schedules
that enable a better work-life balance (more common):

Flextime
– you determine hours of work around a core time frame (i.e. 10 - 2).
Telecommuting
– you can work from home (every day or certain days).
Compressed Work Week
– you can complete a 40-hour work week in less than 5 days (work more from Mon-Tues and get Fridays off).
Job Sharing
– alternative schedule that allows two part-time employees to share one full-time job.
Spring 2018 Professor: S.N.Dheri George Brown College
Research Project Presentation!
What is "motivation"?

Are people motivated by the same things?

Where do you begin if you want to design motivating jobs?
Intrinsic (internal) motivation
is motivation resulting from positive internal feelings that are generated by doing well, rather than being dependent on
extrinsic (external) motivation
from factors such as incentive, pay, or compliments from the boss.
Let's Reflect...
How do the following affect motivation/on-the-job performance?
Social Perceptions
(stereotypes, attributional tendencies)
Self-concept
(self-esteem, self-efficacy, self-monitoring, self-management)
Values
(work/job/task values)
Attitudes
(towards work)
Sample "storyboard"
So what about Daniel Pink?
Job Rotation
Job Enlargement
Job Enrichment
Next Class
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