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Loftus: psychology of revision 2017

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Cara Flanagan

on 27 March 2017

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Transcript of Loftus: psychology of revision 2017

2. Lump of clay problem

The plastic brain

1. How the brain works
The neurophysiology of
LEARNING


Knowing it

Book
Candle
Tomato
Mop
Bicycle
Tree
Gold
Letter
Piano
Child


Group 1

Rehearse


Group 2

Rate each word
1 = pleasant
5 = unpleasant

The psychology of

4. DO you really know it?

Tease out details
For example,

Describe Bowlby’s maternal deprivation hypothesis. (6 marks)

I've missed more than 9000 shots in my career. I've lost almost 300 games. 26 times, I've been trusted to take the game winning shot and missed. I've failed over and over and over again in my life. And that is why I succeed.

Michael Jordan

Don't be discouraged by failure

What is the key to doing well?

Research

London taxi drivers have large hippocampi –associated with spatial memory (Eleanor Maguire et al. 2000).


3. Processing
Revision

Revision
strategy and technique
… the region of the brain that controls finger movement increased in size playing piano daily for 5 days (Alvaro Pascual-Leone et al. 1995).

Literally just looking at the thing you want to learn again.
Study, study = study passages for the first time, restudy one of the passages passage.

Study, test = study passages for the first time, take a recall test over one of the passages.




The testing effect

If you want to remember something focus on getting it out rather than getting it in.
Henry Roediger and Jeffrey Karpicke (2006)
Recognition and recall are different psychological processes.
Practice answering questions in full under timed answers.

Practice output.

Can have brief notes in front of you.


THE SOLUTION


6. Self-control

Veronika Job et al. (2015)
Two weeks twice-daily hand squeezing.

Higher grades 7 months later than control group.

Squeezing the grip takes willpower to resist giving up .


Hand squeeze
African-American college students did worse on a test if asked to indicate their race before taking a test (Claude Steele and Elliot Aronson 1995).

Same for women on Maths test (Steven Spencer et al. 1999).

Stereotype reminder creates anxiety.



7. Stereotype threat
8. Less is more
Think positive
The psychology is wonderful segment
THE PROBLEM
5. Anxiety

'There are only two types of speaker - the nervous and the liars.' Mark Twain
Stress /anxiety leads to arousal of the autonomic nervous system.
This has a negative effect on thinking and memory.
Especially when knowledge is not well-learned.

THE CONSEQUENCES


Book
Candle
Tomato
Mop
Bicycle
Tree
Gold
Letter
Piano
Child


Group 1

Rehearse


Group 2

Rate each word
1 = pleasant
5 = unpleasant

Walter Mischel et al. (1972)
Marshmallow test
10 years later ...
Why?

Changes attitudes towards studying – teaches the idea that you can exert effort.
Cue retrieval

Effective use

Understanding
Evidence
At any time, I can always get a little bit better.
Multi-store model
Thomas Hyde and James Jenkins 1973
X
Duncan Godden and Alan Baddeley (1975)
Full transcript