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Kursus Falsafah UTAM #8

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on 12 May 2014

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Transcript of Kursus Falsafah UTAM #8

Candide
Falsafah "Optimistik"
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Ditulis pada 1759. Salah satu satire paling terkenal dan dianggap klasik.

Satire biasanya bersifat kontemporari dan mempunyai hayat pendek (kerana hanya relevan dengan konteks semasa). Apa yang membuatkan "Candide" lain dari yang biasa?
Pessimisme
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Ringkasan
Spoiler alert: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Candide
Kehidupan Voltaire
Lahir di Paris
Tulisannya mengungkit kemarahan pihak berkuasa; 'berteduh' di Jerman, England
Feminisme dan Eksploitasi?
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VOLTAIRE 1694-1778
“And ask each passenger to tell his story, and if there is one of them all who has not cursed his existence many times, and said to himself over and over again that he was the most miserable of men, I give you permission to throw me head-first into the sea.”

“Do you believe,' said Candide, 'that men have always massacred each other as they do to-day, that they have always been liars, cheats, traitors, ingrates, brigands, idiots, thieves, scoundrels, gluttons, drunkards, misers, envious, ambitious, bloody-minded, calumniators, debauchees, fanatics, hypocrites, and fools?'
Do you believe,' said Martin, 'that hawks have always eaten pigeons when they have found them?”
"This horrible profession, which you men think is good for a laugh, and which for us women is an ocean of misery." Cunegonde, Old Woman, dan kisah wanita lain-lain. (Rogol, perdagangan manusia)

"As they drew near the town, they saw a negro stretched on the ground with only one-half of his habit, which was a kind of linen frock, for the poor man had lost his left leg and his right hand. “Good God,” said Candide in Dutch; “what dost thou here, friend, in this deplorable condition?” “I am waiting for my master, Mynheer Vanderdendur, the famous trader,” answered the negro. “Was it Mynheer Vanderdendur that used you in this cruel manner?” “Yes, sir,” said the negro; “it is the custom here. They give a linen garment twice a year, and that is all our covering. When we labour in the sugar-works, and the mill happens to snatch off a finger, they instantly chop off our hand; and when we attempt to run away, they cut off a leg. Both these cases have happened to me; and it is at this expense that you eat sugar in Europe;" (sweatshop, Apple)

Kursus Falsafah UTAM #8
“It is demonstrable," said he, "that things cannot be otherwise than as they are; for as all things have been created for some end, they must necessarily be created for the best end. Observe, for instance, the nose is formed for spectacles, therefore we wear spectacles. The legs are visibly designed for stockings, accordingly we wear stockings. Stones were made to be hewn and to construct castles, therefore My Lord has a magnificent castle; for the greatest baron in the province ought to be the best lodged. Swine were intended to be eaten, therefore we eat pork all the year round: and they, who assert that everything is right, do not express themselves correctly; they should say that everything is best.”

VS

“Optimism," said Cacambo, "What is that?" "Alas!" replied Candide, "It is the obstinacy of maintaining that everything is best when it is worst.”
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