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Roman Empire

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by

Zack R.

on 26 September 2013

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Transcript of Roman Empire

1. Romans were the first to create battlefield surgery.
2. Romans pioneered in antiseptic surgery.
3. Hemostatic tourniquets and surgical clamps were used to curb blood loss.
4. One of the most important concepts to come out of the Roman Empire was the creation of Trigonometry.
5. Hipparchus of Rhodes (fl. ca. 130 B.C.E.) is credited with being the father of trigonometry.
6. The Julian calendar was the first to adopt a 365-day year.

1. Manuballista- a hand cranked catapult that fires sharp iron tipped arrows.
2. Onager- threw large rocks that could easily destroy buildings
3. Roman Armor was superior to others at the time. Auxiliaries wore chain mail and heavy armor was made with metal plates that overlapped.
4. Scalpel- used in surgery, the scalpel was made of bronze or iron and typically came in two sizes.
5. Bone Forceps- Used to extract bones from wounds.
6. Bone levers- Used to lever fractured bones back into place and also remove teeth.
7. Perfected cast metal and created the first cast metal hammer head.
8. Hammer used in complicated metal forging.

Throughout the Roman Empire there were multiple advancements in technology. Whether it be the Roman roads, Roman achievements in medicine, or Roman weaponry; this empire was very innovative and pioneered in many new technologies that wouldn't come into use until much further down the road.
1. Aqueducts
-Developed around 312 B.C.
-Used gravity to move water down to city centers.
-No longer a dependance on nearby water supplies.
2. Concrete
-Used throughout Mediterranean more than 2,100 years ago.
-Fragile compared to standards of today.
-Many pieces of architecture still stand today because of the special concrete mix.
3. Roads and Highways
-Most sophisticated road system at the time.
-Built out of dirt, gravel, and bricks.
-By 200 C.E. the amount of Roman roads surpassed 50,000 miles.
4. Roman Arches
-Romans used arches in their bridges, monuments, and buildings.
-Created Segmental Arch, a flattened arch commonly repeated to provide sturdier supports.
5. Julian Calendar
-Today's calender modeled after 2,000 year old Roman Calendar.
-Julius Caesar and the astronomer Sosigenes created Julian Calendar in in 416 B.C.
-Julian Calendar aligned with the solar year, had 365 days, and had 12 months.
Roman Empire
Society and Culture
In Ancient Rome

Trade Routes:
Technology
-Centralized
-Localized
-Military
Government
Centralized
-Citizens elect two consuls.
-Others are elected (i.e. judges, tax collectors.
-Only free, landowning males could vote.
-Senate not elected.
-Senators come from noble families.
-Advised Consuls
-Julius Caesar wanted one ruler
-Augustus Caesar became first "Caesar"
Localized
-Divided into "provinces"
-Ruled by governors
-Responsibilities:
-Taxes/financial concern
-Chief accountant
-Supreme judge
-Command of a legion/auxiliary
Military
-Legion contained 5,500 soldiers
-Equipment:
-Short sword, or "gladius"
-Javelin, or "pilus"
-Shield
-Marched long distances
-Fought in formation
-Battle strategy based on terrain, opponents, etc.


Economics:
Trading Partners
Inside Empire
Outside Empire
Egypt: grain, papyrus
Africa: ivory, wild animals, perfume
Spain: gold and silver, metal
Greece: marble
Britain: iron, lead, tin, wool
China: silk, jade
India: spices, cotton, peppercorns, pottery
Currency
coin system was created and kept under strict regulations for consistency
having a standard currency sped up the trading process
value of the coin was equal to the value of the metal in it
The city of Rome was founded in 753 B.C.E by Romulus and Remus. In 509 B.C.E., the city-state of Rome overthrew the king making it a republic. 509 B.C.E to 27 B.C.E, Rome was known as the Roman Republic. Rome was run by kings during this period.
History
Resources:
Main exports from Rome (Italy): pottery, glassware, weapons, tools, jewelry, textiles, grain, olives, grapes, olive oil, wine, marble
Imports: beef, corn, glassware, iron, lead, leather, marble, perfumes, silk, silver, spices, timber, tin
Land
Sea
Roads built by the Roman army were used
Land trade was expensive and slow so it was only profitable with small, expensive items
Horses and oxen used
Cheaper to ship large objects such as stone, metal and food
Access to many places on the Mediterranean
Roman navy kept the water clear of pirates
Rise to Power
Height of Power
The long reign of Augustus started a time of peace and Prosperity, called the "Pax Romana", lasting from 27 C.E to 180 C.E
Around 150 C.E, Rome controlled the greatest empire in Europe. The empire encircled the Mediterranean and covered all of western Europe.
Baths, roads etc. appeared around Western Europe
During Pax Romana, the empire reached its peak in land area, and population.
Many accomplishments, particularly in engineering and the arts.
Fall From Grace
External Factors
Plague and other illnesses.
Threats from outside depleted riches.
Mass Migration
Attacks from tribes and barbarians.
53-50 B.C.E: Gaul is forced to surrender. Julius Caesar conquers Gaul.
49 B.C.E: Caesar marches on Rome with and army, beginning a civil war.
43 B.C.E: Senators Mark Antony, Lepidus, and Octavian take over Rome and Roman territory.
42 B.C.E: Julius Caesar is assassinated.
36 B.C.E: Lepidus is defeated, leaving Octavian and Mark Antony to fight for Supremacy.
32-31B.C.E: Battle of Auctium in Greece. Antony's and Cleopatra's armies are outnumbered.
30 B.C.E: Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide.
27 B.C.E: Octavian receives the name Augustus, and becomes the First Emperor of Rome.
Social Classification:
In the beginning of the empire, the two social classes were Patricians and Plebeians
During the Late Republic the classes were the Imperial family, the senatorial class, the equestrians, the common people, the freedpeople, and the slaves
There could be a stigma attached to your status but the social classes were not rigid
Slaves, lower class Foreigners (non-Italians living in the empire), and lower class Italians could derive their status from their mothers
Gender Relations:
The oldest male of the family had the final say. He was called the paterfamilias
Women had no legal voice and were under the authority of a male from the time they were born
Women and children were not considered citizens. Neither were slaves.
At first, women had few privileges and could not even drink wine or recline while they ate.
These restrictions later loosened
Most men were married in their mid-twenties and women in their mid to late teens
Men could determine if their newborn children would become part of the family or be abandoned. Most abandoned babies were deformed
Demise
Education:
Education was very important and Roman scholars were well-rounded
Boys and girls were educated by their mother as young children. Boys were then taught by their fathers til they went to school
Wealthy families were the only ones who could afford to formally educate their sons
Even the poorer classes were often literate
A girl's education usually was focused on domestic duties
A boy finished school at age 16, which is also when he became a legal adult
Law & Order:
Rome went from a monarchy to a republic in 509 BCE
The Twelve Tables laws were written on tablets and displayed in the center of town
These laws applied to all members of society
Before the Republic and the Twelve Tables, most laws only applied to citizens
There were often harsh punishments. For example, a man who lied while testifying in court would be "hurled down from the Tarpeian Rock."
The fall of the Empire began in 190 C.E. Tribes like the Goths and the Vandals attacked.
190 C.E, Rome had a succession of bad emperors in a short period of time.

Religion:
The Romans worshiped many gods that often corresponded to Greek gods
People went to temples to make sacrifices and participate in festivals for the gods
They also had shrines in their homes to pray
People worshiped the "lares", or household spirits
During the first few centuries CE Christianity spread throughout the empire
Early Christians were often persecuted until it was made the official religion in 312 CE
When Rome was capture, other Roman territories were attacked.
455, the Vandals attacked the Empire and damaged Rome.
In 476, Romulus Augustulus was removed by Odovacar, leader of the Goths.
The fall of the Empire began in 190 C.E. Tribes like the Goths and the Vandals attacked.
190 C.E, Rome had a succession of bad emperors in a short period of time.
In 284 C.E., the empire was divided two ways.
The split required more army power to cover the empire.
The army required more money, empire became dependent on taxes, more money was made, inflation caused prices to rise.
In 307, Constantine moved the capital to Constantinople, the city now was much further east, the western empire became vulnerable.
The Huns attacked the western empire.
Made deal with Vandals and the Visigoths. Could live in Empire as long as they provided protection from the Huns.
In 410, the leader of the Visigoths captured Rome.
Advancements
Metallurgy
Sciences
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