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Shawn John

on 18 March 2014

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Transcript of Copy of WELL SITES

To be honest, it's actually 4 processes:

1. Exploration
2. Well development
3. Production
4. Site abandonment

I know we all think it's only about the pipes because they are sooo...sexy!

Although it's a little complicated- It's really not all that hard.

Brent ''The Piper" Holst pretty much knows everything about this sorta thing (and is always willing to help a young lady or PPD class in need), so we're in luck!
And According to the Pembina Institute:

"Well Site Operation" includes the oil or gas production phase that starts when workers
(or zombies, robots....or Brazilian Slave Labour)
have drilled a production well and ends when they deactivate the well and reclaim the well site.

The Pembina people insist that
all good well sites have 2 basic features:

1. A Wellhead-
You know- with valves to control the flow of oil or gas from the reserve (we all know that- duh!)


2. A Well Pad-
Usually made of gravel and large enough to hold all the equipment needed on the well site, as well as equipment to service the well.
Well sites can be found pretty much everywhere.....
The Ocean, somewhere near Andrew's hometown....
Or perhaps in Suzy and Sayed's Backyard....

I'm sure Helio and Tania used one of these in South America......
And one day, I'm sure there'll be well sites on Krishna's new home on Mars.
Maybe even in a place you've heard of. Like....
Thanks Brent - That was amazing!


I'm sure Ashwin and Sayed already know this, but for the rest of us it's important that we hear from.....
The Pembina Institute!!
A place kinda like this
A place like this....but there's more.....
*Don't be afraid- They're really just a research organization that promote "environmental, social and economic sustainability" and know a lot about the oil sands and even well sites. That's all.
Okay, the well sites are in Alberta.

What if I need to send a get 'well' card or something?
Is there a way to determine the address?
Using the Western Canada portion of the Dominion Land Survey we see that things are divided into Meridian Lines….the 4th and 5th meridians are the ones we’re concerned with in Alberta.
The province is then broken up into
by use of
Range Lines
which run west to east and
Township Lines
that run north to south. The resulting grid is of Townships that are 6 miles square.
Check it out!
Remember this stuff!
What the Heck is a Well Site,

Bearded Helio and his Dog!
A Guide For The Perplexed!
Well Site Equipment
J'Ya know you're gonna like it!

Almost all well sites have:

A connection with an assembly pipeline that transports the oil or gas to a processing facility and then to a large-volume transmission pipeline.

Check this out
Remember the
"Pump jack?"-
It's used

for getting both the oil and gas out of the ground.


When there is not enough pressure in the formation to automatically force the oil to the surface, workers will use a mechanical pump to bring the oil up.

Here's a close up of this puppy. And 'yes' Sydney, you can draw your own and colour it for extra marks!

And 'no' Daniel, it doesn't have to be done 'to scale.' C'mon!
Used for oil and gas. It's a vessel used to separate entrained gas from produced oil in the case of an oil well site.
The Flare- Used for oil and gas. To burn waste gases that have not been captured and fed into a pipeline.

Used for gas. Workers may use a glycol dehydrator to remove the water from the gas before it enters the gas gathering system.

Disposal Wells!
Used for oil and gas. Disposal wells are drilled into deep underground geologic formations and are used to dispose of liquid and gaseous wastes. The formations must be “confined”— that is, there is no chance of these wastes moving into other geologic formations or into potential potable water aquifers.

Gas or electric-powered compressors to increase gas pressure so it will flow through pipelines.
Pumps- Crews use gas or electric-powered pumps to apply pressure to oil or water so it will flow through pipelines.

Measures the flow of oil and gas into the pipeline as it leaves the well site and travels to a processing facility.

Surface water containment ponds!
Used for oil and gas. Companies normally design well sites so that all of the rainwater that lands on the well pad flows to one part of the site. They do this by making dug out area on the site large enough to contain all of the precipitation that may collect.
As we mentioned earlier:
The exact design of the well site depends on the oil and/or gas formation that crews have drilled into, and the hydrocarbon material they are removing.

And hey! Remember this?

Crews will need different types of equipment depending on what they are drawing up the well.

So, this is what you all came here for!

But did you know

Suncor Firebag!
This is their Wellpad Program with Wellpads,Gathering Lines, Main Lines and Processing Facility (Thanks Jacobs!)
The equipment that is required to run a well site-
And next we have the

(This is 'Ubiquitous' in Chinese, apparently)
The Well Site Process!
There's a lot going on down there...
So bring your hard hat...and
From Christmas Trees to Valves; what's down there, where, how much and at what pressure affects the equipment chosen and the process.
• Exploration involves the search for rock formations associated with oil or natural gas deposits, and involves geophysical prospecting and/or exploratory drilling.
Develop a Well!
Well development occurs after exploration has located an economically recoverable field.

And what does it involve?
The construction of one or more wells from the beginning (called spudding) to either abandonment (if no hydrocarbons are found), or to well completion if hydrocarbons are found in sufficient quantities.

Each Township is divided into Sections which are 1 mile square or 640 acres…
If we keep dividing by 4 we find ourselves within Quarter Sections (160 acres)…
Legal Sub-Divisions (40 acres)…And ¼ Legal Sub-Divisions which are 10 acres.

"Do J'Ya got it?"
Just to help visualize, you could say that one section of land is divided into 64 equal squares which are known as 1/4 LSD's labelled by their compass coordinates NW, NE, SW and SE.
It’s at this point that a location of a well site can be identified.
"Easy, Easy, Easy!"
But to offset this simplification is the fact that with the advent of horizontal drilling,
the Bottom of Hole Location seldom corresponds to the Topside Location
. This too has to be determined but that’s all we need to know for this discussion…
the process of extracting the hydrocarbons and separating the mixture of liquid hydrocarbons, gas, water, and solids, removing the constituents that are non-saleable, and selling the liquid hydrocarbons and gas.

Production sites

often handle crude oil from more than one well. Oil is nearly always processed at a refinery; natural gas may be processed to remove impurities either in the field or at a natural gas processing plant.
And then Abandon your site!
When a newly drilled well lacks the potential to produce economic quantities of oil or gas or when a production well is no longer financially viable, the well must be plugged before the site is abandoned.

but True!
We're really much more concerned with the ones a little closer to home.
Nothing new, but 'oh so fascinating!'
Okay, that was easy, wasn't it?

Now we need to find out about....
This is so fascinating. Helio must be a really good teacher to have such
smart students.
Don't be too sad though, it's a natural part of life.
Now, if you'll come over here. I should also mention that we will be dealing with two different types of well sites in Alberta.

First, there is your "Conventional Site"
with some cool equipment with names like "Pump Jack" and "Annulus Gas Skids."
(I'm not sure how you say these in Chinese or Hindi, but I'm sure it's even better!)

And secondly, there are the more impressive,
and ridiculously named, "
SAGD- Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage Sites"

You see, they work like this.....
Pay Helio 5 Bucks.
As we know, an oil well is a term for any drilling or boring through the Earth's surface designed to find and release both petroleum oil and gas hydrocarbons.

In a Conventional Site:

To drill the well,
The drill bit, breaks up the earth (which is washed out of the hole with the 'drilling mud') and extends the well
The pipe or drill string to which the bit is attached is gradually lengthened as the well gets deeper
The oil rig or derrick which fulfills the role of super- structure bearing the load of the drill string also contains machinery to rotate the drill string.

Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD)
is used in the oil sands of Alberta especially where strip-mining is ineffective due to deeper deposits. It is an enhanced oil recovery technology for producing heavy crude oil and bitumen.

In this advanced form of steam stimulation, a pair of horizontal wells are drilled into the oil reservoir, one a few metres above the other (The wells are usually spaced about 100 metres laterally apart). High pressure steam is continuously injected into the upper wellbore to heat the oil and reduce its viscosity, causing the heated oil to drain into the lower wellbore, where it is drawn out by progressive cavity pumps.

So now that we know so much about
well sites and how to find them,
let's try and get a handle on all this equipment that is used in these Well Site operations!
Equipment Expert Alert!
Hard Hat + Glasses + Menacing Look = Expert
Foremost offers:
Skid-Mounted, Tank/Separator Combination Packages.

Combo packages equipped with tanks from 28 BBL to 200 BBL. Includes a separator vessel, piping to skid edge, instruments inlcuding meters, valves and a fuel gas system, plus a tank to store water separated from gas and condensate. Standard and custom designs available.

Options include:

Tank/separator packages - 28 BBL - 200 BBL

Single or double walled storage tanks

Vessel sizes from 12"D - 48"D

2 and 3 phase designs

Custom control systems

Methanol injection systems

Chemical injection systems

But not only that, you'll also find some of these beasties....

Vessels are used to separate oil, gas, and condensate through retention time and pressure.

Foremost's experienced vessel designers, engineers and fabricators have manufactured and designed some of the largest and most complex heavy wall vessels in the oil & gas industry.

They have state of the art manufacturing facilities that have capabilities and experience up to:
29.5' diameter
300' length
6.25" thick
800,000 lbs.

Source materials include, but are not limited to carbon steel, stainless steel, explosion bonded plate, select full alloy metals and weld overlay.
Vertical Vessels/Separators!
Here's one being built!
There's lots of Nozzles, Flanges and Elbows to choose from.

Each part has to be accounted for.

Then we'll move on to.....
The Dehydrator!
Rumour has it that in the 90's Henry designed a full Olympic sized swimming pool in China along side the containment ponds.
A Curious Thing:
SAGD WellPad Equipment!
And lastly, here's a brief mention and look at the incredible variety of equipment that actually goes into a Wellpad.

We've really only gotten into the highlights!
A real-life Suncor Firebag Plot plan (shhh...don't tell!).
Jacobs works with SAGD extensively.
Here's a few shots of one of their sites
in Navisworks (created in Autoplant).

You wanna zoom? Okay, let's do it!
Storage Tanks! Custom shop or Field Erected
Specs from Foremost:

Foremost offers custom design, engineering, drafting and manufacture of shop fabricated tanks up to 3000BBL and Field erected tanks custom built up to 250,000BBL, 64’H X 200’D.

Several options are available including:

Cone bottom tanks

De-sand tanks

Production and Skim tanks

Storage tanks

Custom skid/anchor chair design for piled installations

Internal and external coatings and insulation in accordance with industry standards

Conventional fire-tube/burner heating systems as well as glycol heat coils, electric heat coils, etc

High Efficiency Low Emission (HELEx®) burner system

Custom design and manufacture

After the hole is drilled, a metal pipe called a 'casing' is cemented into the hole. In order to gain access to the "hydrocarbon producing interval", the casing and cement are either perforated ('cased hole completion') or an additional section of earth is drilled below the casing ('open hole completion').

Finally, 'tubing' (smaller diameter pipe, from 50 to 150 mm diameter) is typically run into the well and packed off at the base, inside the casing. The well produces up through the tubing.

Interestingly, Bill at DPH-Focus mentioned that:

Pretty Straightforward, right?
Teena will talk in depth about well site equipment in a little bit, but while we're talking about conventional wells, here is a quick summary of the equipment needed depending on what is being drawn up the well:

small quantities of water:
dehydrator or line heater, flare stack
large quantities of water:
separator, tank for water, dehydrator or line heater, flare stack
small quantities of oil:
separator, tanks for oil and water, dehydrator, flare stack
large quantities of oil:
flare stack, second pipeline for oil

small quantities of water:
large quantities of water:
separator, tank for water
small quantities of gas:
flare stack
large quantities of gas:
flare stack, second pipeline for gas

Ok, Go!
The Bonus Reel: Shots from the Foremost Tour
As Helio and the rest of the world sleeps, we arrive at Foremost. Suzy didn't even bring donuts : (. I think Sal thought about it though- thanks Sal!
Semi-Elliptical Heads are often 'bigger than you might imagine' and much cooler!
Platforms. Even better than in PDMS.
If I ever need a rocket ship built, this is where I'm going to get it made.
Thankfully, there are not many safety rules at Foremost! And hey, Karuna's hair has almost grown completely back already.
Nothing Special, but it's a pretty cool door as far as doors go.
Where they cut the metal for all sorts of stuff- all robotic. I wonder if it does tattoos?
The thing that bends the metal into a tower shape. I've heard that if you make too many mistakes on your P&ID's, you might......well, I'm sure it's just a rumour. But let's just say that you'll have a much easier time slipping under doors.
The paint booth- these guys work about 72 hours straight.
They probably did projects with Helio to work up to it.
Wide angle lens = another shot of this!
Applying the insulation. I like how it looks in PDMS a little better.
All the goodies, plus some extras....Yikes!
Jr. Drafter's Heads
According to Bill at DPH-Focus
(A local EPC Company):

"A 'well site' is really a pretty generic term and can refer to a lot of different things."
Nonetheless Bill.....
1. In many cases oil fluid comes through the tubing and gas through the casing


2. Sometimes they can produce from 2 or 3 tubing strips with many levels and
it can get very complicated.
That Bill.
What a guy, eh?
in Portugeuse.

in Hindi
in Egyptian (roughly translated)
Me gusta!
Hoo chee
Now that's what I expect when I order an extra-large latte!
Bill also says that:
• Separators in an oil system are usually 3 phase and the gas is always metered.

When you get a lot of hydrocarbon liquids and water you have to put a separator in to meter the gas, re-inject it back in and put it back down the pipeline.

This is normal for a gas well.
Bill sure is smart, isn't he?
SAGD- Unconventional!
2 Types:
But Bill again offers us
some perspective:
They don’t use gauges as much these days, because they are so expensive. It's better to have a quick connect and just connect them when you need to do a test.
Muchas Gracias, Senor' Bill.
Bill mentions an interesting fact here. He says:

"A lot of the pump jacks are powered by the casing gas."
Expansion Loop
However, although there are a lot of pipelines out there,
Bill let's us know that:
"For a lot of wells,
the oil is trucked out"
Thanks again, Bill.
Who knew?
Just so you know- Well Site separators are not usually this big......
Curious note: Legend has it that Andrew used to light his cigars and roast marshmallows with this when he worked nights at the plant.
(but more in focus....)
"Yes or No?"
Anyway, it's about that time.

Thanks for coming along on
our little trip.

But before you leave, why don't
you have a look at.....
The Credits

A special thanks to:

All the companies that shared their time and knowledge with us
- Foremost, Jacobs, Focus, Enerflex, Tim Hortons, The Keg, The 'Tickler' 24 hr. Lounge/Bar (Tania).

Helio "Hellooo" Colaco
- You are an inspiration to at least one of us, if not even two.

wants to thank his mom.
also wants to thank her mom and hopes she gets her a job at Jacobs. Brent also wants her to get him a job at Jacobs. Tania's mom, that is. Brent just wants to thank his mom.

told us all to 'suck it' half way through the project, but we're all friends again, so we want to thank her for joining our group. We could have done it without you, but we're glad we didn't. Next time we'll ask Amanda though.

Shawn "Xian" Johnsen...
Our "Prezi Master" whose

sense of humour is indescribable, not indescribably funny....just indescribable.

Hannah Summer Johnsen:
Shawn's 12 year old daughter who helped get the 'Prezi' off the ground and showed him how to hack Mp3s off of Youtube.

And last of all
, we want to thank all the incredible, beautiful and talented members of our audience. Especially those 'special 3'- you know who you are!! (And we know where to find you if you don't do the 'right thing').

The End
But it's a little more complicated than just a couple of wells up top....
It can actually get pretty involved.
The Terre de Grace lease area consists of over 290.5 square miles and is huge. It is located 36 miles (60 kilometers) northwest of Fort McMurray. (This is in partnership with BP.)
A BST Production
Due to a glitch in the space-time continuum, this presentation has been.....
Pipes is Sexy.
You wanna see some artist's renderings of a SAGD site? They're pretty cool.

Plus, we've got some time.

Henry took 1 1/2 hours, so .... Let's go!
SAGD City!
Well heads and more.
Just have a look around....
That's it!
I wish there were shadows in Autoplant!
So when it all comes down to it, you're left with an address something like this...
LSD 13, Sec. 22, Twp 17, Rge 12, W 4th Meridian`
It's for your Mom, you know?
Btw, the crazy pipes at the wellhead allow for expansion due to the heat.
I don't think the sites stay that clean for long!
And why use insulation when garbage bags are just as handy? ; )
Pipe racks are pretty sexy, now aren't they?
Is Sexy.
Full transcript