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The Periodic Table

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Mr. Garbarino

on 16 December 2013

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Transcript of The Periodic Table

Periodic Table
Dmitri Mendeleev
Mendeleev organized the elements into the original periodic table based on their
atomic masses.
Modern Periodic Table
Modern table is organized in order of increasing
atomic numbers.
More than 2/3 of the elements are metals
Properties of Metals
Good conductors of heat and electricity
Luster (shiny)
Ductile (stretches into wires)
Malleable (hammer into thin sheets)
Mostly solid at room temp.
Except Hg (mercury) which is a liquid
The metals are on the left of the "staircase" (in blue)
Located on the right side of the "staircase" (in yellow)
Properties of Nonmetals
Mostly gases at room temp.
= solids
= Liquid
Poor conductors of heat and electricity
Brittle solids
Between the metals and the nonmetals
Used in computer chips
Groups run vertically (up and down) the periodic table.
Elements in the same group have the same number of valence electrons.
This leads to similar chemical properties
Major Groups
Group 1: Alkali Metals
Most reactive group of metals
Never found uncombined in nature
Group 2: Alkaline Earth Metals
Groups 3-12: Transition Metals
compounds and solutions
Multiple oxidation states (charges)
Group 17: Halogens
Most reactive group of nonmetals
Only group with all three phases of matter (solid (iodine), liquid (bromine), gas (chlorine/fluorine)
Group 18: Noble Gases
Nonreactive because they already have a full valence shell. (full octet = 8 valence electrons)
Henry Moseley- reorganized elements
Periods run horizontally (left/right) across the table.
Elements in the same period have the same number of energy levels containing electrons:
Ex: Per 3: 3 energy levels (shells)
Per 4: 4 energy levels (shells)
Atomic Radius
The distance from the nucleus to the outer electrons.
The positive charge of the nucleus is what attracts negative electrons and pulls the electron cloud in.
Trends in Atomic Radius
Across a Period
: Atomic Radius Decreases
Why Does Atomic Radius Decrease Across A Period?
As protons are added to the nucleus, the extra positive charge pulls the electron cloud in closer.
Trend in Atomic Radius Down A Group
Additional shells of electrons cause radius to increase down a group.
Ionization Energy
The amount of energy needed to remove the outermost electron (most loosely bound) from an atom.

The stronger the positive charge of the nucleus, the higher the ionization energy (the harder it is to remove an electron)

Ex: Li = 520 kJ/mol (metal)
F = 1680 kJ/mol (non-metal)
Fluorine requires more energy to remove an electron than lithium.

Ionization Energy Across A Period
Remember: The
nuclear charge gets more positive across a period!
(Nucleus attracts electrons better)
This causes atoms to hold onto their electrons better, so
ionization energy increases across the period.
Ionization Energy Down A Group
Extra energy levels as you move down the group
make the nucleus less effective at pulling in electrons.
the ionization energy decreases
as you move down a group.
The ability to attract electrons.
The stronger the positive charge of the nucleus, the higher the electronegativity because the atoms are better at attracting electrons.
Electronegativity Across a Period
greater positive nuclear charge across a period
gives a stronger hold on electrons.
electronegativity increases across a period.
Electronegativity Down A Group
Atomic Radius Down a Group
Additional energy levels added to the atom cause the atomic radius to increase down a group.
As you move down a group, the extra energy levels shield the positive charge of the nucleus and make it less capable of attracting electrons.
The nonmetals have a stronger hold on their electrons and the metals a weaker hold.
Metals lose electrons
NonMetals Gain electrons
Electronegativity Down A Group
additional energy levels shield the (+) charge of the nucleus
making it less capable of attracting electrons, so
electronegativity decreases down a group.
Trends in Reactivity
Metals lose electrons
to become (+) ions and
non-metals gain electrons
to become (-) ions
(+) ions (cations) = smaller radius
(-) ions (anions) = larger radius
Most reactive metals
are in the
lower left
of table (

ionization energies
and electronegativities)
Lose electrons most easily

Most reactive non-metals
upper right
(top group 17) (higher ionization energies and
higher electronegativity
Gain electrons easily
Summary of Periodic Trends
Across a Period: (metals to nonmetals)

Increased (+) charge of the nucleus causes:

Atomic Radius to Decrease
Ionization Energy to Increase
Harder to remove (lose) electrons
Electronegativity to Increase
Better at attracting electrons
Ability to gain electrons and non-metallic properties to increase
Summary of Trends
Extra energy levels of electrons added as you go down a group cause:
Atomic Radius to Increase
Ionization Energy to Decrease
More likely to lose electrons
Electronegativity to Decrease
More likely to lose electrons.
Atoms to become more likely to lose electrons. (metals become more reactive)
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