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Transcript of The Arts
Literature of this period began with the Romantic movement. Romanticism was pretty much a straight rebellion on all the classic styles before it. It chased the emotion, color, and imagination of a work. It didn't care about society it was more about how the person or object felt.
Music in Europe during this time consisted of the great composers of classical music. However in America, colonial music was dominant. Many hymns, patriotic songs, waltz and opera songs.
The architecture of this time used the same kinds of styles as painting. The Federalists style of building was fairly simple. It was essentially a box, it had 2-3 stories, and only two rooms deep. The outside "decorations" were confined to the porch where you would find elaborate columns. This style strived to accentuate geometrical design.
Artists used the "Federalists style" at first. Accentuating balance and emotional restraint, this style used a lot of techniques and objects from European models.
Benjamin West was considered America's first great painter. Ironically he was more English than American, being born in Pennsylvania he moved to England and eventually settled there. How did he influence American arts so greatly? He became president of the Royal Academy in 1792 which let him teach the prominent American Artists.
The Death Of General Wolfe
This is one of West's paintings depicting the Death of Horatio Nelson. In this work he tried his best to make it as accurate as possible but he said the painting was, "of what might have been, not of the circumstances as they happened."
Gilbert Stuart one of West's students at the Royal Academy. Hailing from Rhode Island, Stuart was considered the greatest portrait painter. We see one of his most famous paintings quite often and we don't even realize it! His portrait "The Athenaeum" is the picture of George Washington that appears on the 1$ bill. He painted over 1000 portraits including 6 presidents.
John Trumbull was another of West's students. He was best at historical paintings (many of which can be found in our history book). In 1816 Trumbull was selected to be president of the American Academy of the Fine Arts. Sadly, the experience did not work out well for him because he did not get along with his students.
The Battle of Bunker Hill
The Hudson River School
The Hudson River School was a movement in American painting. It wasn't actually a school, but a group of painters who had a common vision and desired to inspire others. Instead of the heavy European influence in painting, the focus changed to celebrating America and American life. These artists relished in the beauty of the natural landscape of America. When the artists would want to start a new painting they would travel and find the most gorgeous place they could.
Thomas Cole is regarded as the founder of the Hudson River School. He started out trying to paint portraits but found little success so he decided to try landscapes. He painted most of his works in his studio he owned in New York. He also tried his hand at architecture, he wasn't bad at it but enjoyed painting more.
The Titan's Goblet
As you can probably guess by his last name, Albert Bierstadt was a German who moved to America when he was only a year old. He also was a part of the Hudson River School. A large part of his career was painting the land of the Westward Expansion. His painting were usually quite large and sold for an impressive amount of money. There is a mountain in Colorado named Mount Bierstadt after him because he loved mountains.
The Oregon Trail
Charles Bulfinch was the first great American architect who decided to make it his career. He was extremely eager to sustain the classical style, he even drew architectural designs for free so they would build using the style.
One of his first works was the Hollis Street Church built in 1788.
Benjamin Latrobe was another great American architect. He drew inspiration from his numerous travel all over the world including Italy. He is known for his work on the Old Baltimore Cathedral which is the first Roman Catholic Cathedral in the U.S. He also worked on the State Penitentiary in Richmond.
The United States Capitol Building
Both Bulfinch and Latrobe worked on the United States Capitol at different times.
James Fenimore Cooper
James Fenimore Cooper paved way for the great writers behind him. He was the first great American writer that included African, African American and Native American characters in his works. He went to Yale at 13 but got expelled for pranking a student. He then went into the U.S. Navy. Accordingly he wrote many sea-stories, and many historical novels too. He was most recognized for writing The Last of the Mohicans.
Washington Irving is most likely best known for his great short stories: The Legend of Sleepy Hollow and Rip Van Winkle. At first he tried his hand at law but didn't succeed so he decided to focus mainly on writing instead. His popularity grew with his "A History of New York" written under a false name.
Nathaniel Hawthorne was most likely one of the greatest writers ever. He went to Bowdoin College graduating in 1825, 3 years later publishing his first work "Fanshawe." Surprisingly, later he tried to take it back because it wasn't as great as his other works. When he wrote he used many Puritan influences. He pushed the idea of using good morals. His most famous work, "The Scarlet Letter," became a bestseller in the U.S. almost instantly. Many people loved the book but he still was ridiculed for the way he pointed out the faults in the Puritan society.
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe is known for many things: his haunting stories, creating the short story, and bringing forth a genre of detective fiction. Both his parents died leaving him to live with John Allan. Sadly neither had very much money so when Poe decided to attend the University of Virginia he had to leave after a semester. During his life he worked for many magazines helping and publishing some of his poems and book reviews. His most famous work "The Raven" is incredibly eerie.
Stephen Foster is known as the "father of American Music." He wrote over 200 musical pieces and almost many of them are still famous today. Songs like, "Oh Susanna" "Camptown Races" and "Beautiful Dreamer" are some of his biggest hits. "I Dream of Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair" was originally written for his wife. Although his era is long gone his music is still heard.
Stephen Foster may have written hymns but Lowell Mason specialized in hymns. He wrote many hymns that are still sung around the nation today. His arrangement of Joy to the World and his "Nearer, My God, To Thee" are his most popular. Part of the reason we have music in schools today is thanks to him. Also, instead of a choir singing accompanied by an organ at church, he changed it to having the congregation sing with the organ.
In conclusion, I really enjoyed doing this presentation. I learned many things I didn't know about before. All these factors have helped America become what it is today and I'm proud to live here!
Thanks for watching!!
The Death of Nelson
"Benjamin West." The J. Paul Getty Museum. n.d. Web. <http://www.getty.ed/art/gettyge/artMakerDeails?maker=689>
"Albert Bierstadt Biography." ALbert Bierstadt. n.d. Web. <http://www.albertbierstadt.org/biography>
"Historic Styles/ Federal/ Adam Style 1780-1840." Wentworth Studios. n.d. Web. <http://www.wentworthstudios.com/historic-styles/federal>
"Washington Irving biography." Bio. n.d. Web. <http://www.biography.com/people/washington-irving-93500877>
"Poe's Life." Poe Museum. n.d. Web <http://poemuseum.org/life.php>