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Untuned Percussion Instruments
Transcript of Untuned Percussion Instruments
Introduced in: 1680 into the European orchestra by Nikolaus Adam Strungk
Tone colour: smash, crash, splash shatter
Sound is made by: clashed by sweeping them past each other sideways or played by means of a foot pedal. A single cymbal may be struck by wooden or felt drumsticks.
RHYTHM NAME CYMBAL PATTERN
Ayub 1 1 3
Beledi 1 1 3 1 3
Maksoum 1 5 1 3
Saidi 1 3 1 1 3
Masmudi 1 1 3 1 3 2
Chiftetelli 1 5 5 1 1 3
In the year 1623, Avedis Zildjian, an Armenian alchemist in the city of Constantinople, in his attempt to create gold from a combination of copper, tin and traces of silver, found instead a new metal alloy with unique sound qualities. The secret blend of Zildjian's celebrated cymbals remains the same today as it was four centuries ago. A gong is an East and South East Asian musical percussion instrument that takes the form of a flat metal disc which is hit with a mallet.
Introduced in: 1790 by François Joseph Gossec in western orchestras
Tone colour: Deep ringing,
Sound is made by: Gongs are struck at the centre with a mallet or a leather or felt-covered beater.
Rhythms played: The lancaran is a cycle of 16 beats (keteg) in the following order:
TWTN TPTN TPTN TPTG
where T indicates the strike of the ketuk, P the kempul, N the kenong, and G the simultaneous stroke of the gong and kenong. The W indicates the wela, the pause where the kempul is omitted. Thus, the gong plays once, the kenong divides that into four parts, the kempul divides each of those in two, and the ketuk divides each of those further in two.
Ancient origin representations of the gong date back to the 6th cent. It has also been called the tam-tam. First used in Western music in the funeral march of Gossec's Mirabeau (1791), the gong has since been a regular member of the European-type orchestra, but it is used sparingly. It is commonly used in East Asian music and in the gamelan music of Bali and Java. From the front, the cowbell is a trapezium. It has 5 sides and a handle. At the bottom of the main body it is hollow, with a dangling bell inside.
Description: The cowbell is an idiophone hand percussion instrument. It used in various styles of music including salsa and infrequently in popular music. It is named after the similar bell historically used by herdsman to keep track of the whereabouts of cows.
When it was introduced: The cowbell was around a long time but its main purpose was not music, it was to keep track of cattle and animals. It was introduced as an instrument in 1688 by Johann Sebastian Bach.
Tone colour: Ringing, Metallic and Light.
Sound is made by: Shaking, hitting and dropping.
Rhythms played (famous pieces):
1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6
X X X X X X X
Interesting Facts: The cowbells were not first created as instruments but as a means of tracking down animals and cattle. The Castanets are in the shape of a clam. They usually are made from metal or wood.
Description: Castanets are mostly used in folk or classical music especially in Spain. Castanets are played in pairs of varying pitches. It may either be attached to each thumb (folk) or to any or all the fingers (classical) depending on the type of music.
When it was introduced: In Ancient Greece, instruments resembling boot-shaped castanets were played and were called krotala.
Tone colour: Staccato, wooden, metallic.
Sound is made by: Striking, shaking and flicking
Rhythms played (famous pieces): A very famous piece that the castanets are featured in is a Little duck from the symphony of animals.
Interesting Facts: Was used all the way back in ancient Greek times. The average clave is usually made of wood, and it is the shape of a cylinder.
Description: Claves are either made out of wood or plastic. They are hollowed out in the middle to produce their sound. Without two claves, they are not claves.
When it was introduced: The Aboriginals, Brazilian and African used claves very early on in primitive music. It was later introduced into the orchestra family of percussion.
Tone colour: Bright, Clicking.
Sound is made by: Hitting, Colliding.
Rhythms played (famous pieces): In various Beatles songs such as “And I Love Her” and “Magic Bus”, the claves can clearly be heard.
Interesting Facts: The Aboriginals used them but called them clap sticks. The tambourine is a shallow, handheld drum made of a round wooden frame with a cowskin or plastic stretched across the top. The tambourine has small discs called jingles set into its frame which produce sound when the tambourine is shaken, rubbed, or struck on the drum head with the knuckles. Early tambourines were played by Turkish army musicians known as "Janissaries.”
Introduced in: Mozart first used the tambourine in his music in 1782.
Tone color: The tambourines tone color is vibrant and hollow
Sound is made by: Being struck and shaken, even rubbed.
Rythms Played: none
Interesting Facts: The Tamborine in in the Percussion family. It means "the hitting of one body against another,". This instruments role in the orchestra is similar to many other untuned percussion instruments in the orchestra, which is to keep a rhythemic beat and add a variation of tone colour to the orchestra. Maracas, also known as rhumba shakers, are a type of handheld instrument that are usually found in pairs. In theory if you haven’t seen them be fore they look like a parir of rattles.
Introduced In: Unknown
Tone color: light, tango, bright chink
Sound is made by: shaking and hitting
Interesting Facts: As you know they belong to the percussion family, Maracas are traditionally made of a dried shell, like from a coconut or gourd, and filled with seeds, small stones, or beans. The traditional maraca was made of gourd. The dried seeds naturally found inside these gourds become the pellets that make the instrument's sounds. Due to advancing technology, more modern varieties of maracas may use leather, wood, or plastic for the shells instead. The End Thank you! A bass drum is a large drum, which can be played individually or in a drum kit. In a typical drum kit, it is the largest drum which is struck using the foot pedal on the floor. It is usually played in marching bands with a sling when played individually. This drum is known for producing the deepest sound.
When it was introduced: The bass drum we know today was invented in the 1930’s by Gabriella Pittui, in Ontario, Canada.
Tone colour: Boom, deep bang
Sound is made by:
• Stepping on a pedal to create the above
A Famous rhythm played by the base drum;
In Phil Collins’ song In the Air Tonight, the first beat of each bar’s four beats is the bass drum.
• Large double-headed drums, like the bass drums, have actually existed since 2000BC. Bongos are an Afro-Cuban percussion instrument. The drums are of different size: the larger drum is called in Spanish the hembra (female) and the smaller the macho (male). They are membranophones, or instruments that create sound by a vibration against a stretched membrane.
Introduced in: It is un-known when they were introduced
Tone colour: light bonk
Sound it made by: hitting, tapping or striking
Rhythms played by the bongos: the most well known is the Martillo which is very basic
Interesting Facts: The drum heads on the bongos are usually made of animal skins but are sometimes made of plastic. The body of the drums is metal, wood and sometimes ceramic. One drum is bigger than the other. The bigger drums are called a "hembra" and means "Female" in Spanish. The smaller of the two drums is called a "macho" and means "Male" in Spanish.