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Phonics/Phonemic Awareness Presentation

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Katie Sandage

on 18 October 2014

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Transcript of Phonics/Phonemic Awareness Presentation

Phonics/Phonemic Awareness
Re-Evaluating the Significance of Phonemic Awareness
and Phonics in Literacy Teaching:
The Shared Role of School Counsellors and Teachers
By: Julie Wilson and Susan Colmar

Reviewed by: Katlyn Sandage
The Role of Phonemic Awareness and Phonics in Beginning Reading By Carol Spaulding Serna
Reviewed by: Samantha Silvestri
Adaptations of the Names Test: Easy-to-use Phonics Assessments

Reviewed By: Alison Jonson
Main Points of the Article:
1. The differences between phonemic awareness and phonics
2. Five levels of phonemic awareness
3. Phonemic awareness activities
4. The link between the beginning reading instruction and phonemic awareness
"Phonics is the correlation of sounds or phonemes to letters or graphemes" (McAndrews, 2008).

Teaching and assessing phonics is important because it is one of the first steps to reading and learning vocabulary.
McAndrews, S.L. (2008).
Diagnostic Literacy Assessments and Instructional Strategies.
Newark: International Reading Association
Phonemic Awareness
"Phonemic Awareness is the ability to recognize that a spoken word consists of a sequence of individual sounds or phonemes, to distinguish between different phonemes, and to manipulate phonemes in words to change their meaning" (Mcandrews, 2008).

McAndrews, S.L. (2008).
Diagnostic Literacy Assessments and Instructional Strategies.
Newark: International Reading Association
Phonemic Awareness Importance
Phonemic Awareness instruction helps children learn to read. Let's watch a phoneme lesson:
Let's look at Assessment
Adaptations of the Names Test: Easy-to-use Phonics Assessments

Article Aim: This article's intention is to explain a phonological screening test and how it was altered over the past fifteen years. The article explains that the test was designed to be an informal way to assess students' early phonics knowledge. It measures students' knowledge of phonemes and graphemes, which is an important aspect of reading.
Names Test 1990
The original Names Test was designed to identify students who are at risk for reading failure.
Having a solid foundation of phonics is the beginning step for reading.
Phonics should be tested with nonsense words to avoid using context or semantic clues, but that can be meaningless to students.
Cunningham, test developer, created the Names Test by using a list of first and last names with common phonemes to make the words more meaningful and engaging.
Each first name is 1 point, and each last name is 1 point.
Original Names Test (Cunningham 1990)
Revised Names Test 1994
In 1994, Duffelmeyer revised the Name Test to make it more reliable, usable, and valid.
The new assessment had shorter first and last names and more common names because it is measuring knowlegde of common phonemes and graphemes.
The study in the article was intended to test the new Names Test (Early Names Test) with students.
The Study
Step 1: 156 third graders were asked to attempt to read all 35 pairs of first and last names, The result was that the students read an average of 59/70 names.

Step 2:
The entire set of names was reordered from easiest words to the most difficult. (This makes the assessment easier to score and eliminates more student frustration.
The Study (Cont.)
Step 3: The reordered list was easier to use and then tested on 443 second grade students. 4.5% of students had IEPs, 3.8% were English Language Learners, and there was an equal amount of boys and girls. This time students were to read 30 pairs of the reordered first and last names. The results concluded that students read, on average, 43 out of 60 first and last names correctly.
Early Names Test Words
Scoring Sheet
Detailed Scoring Sheet
Early Names Test
Conclusions From The Study
Students with beginning or low reading skills will benefit from phonics instruction.
If a student has trouble with this assessment, it signifies to the teacher that this student may need more direct instruction time with phonemes.
Before administering the Early Names Test, decide whether or not your students have had enough exposure to common phonemes.
Overall, the study was successful, and this assessment is a good screening tool for phonics and phonemic awareness for beginning readers.
What did you think of this Assessment?

Aims of the Article
1. The importance of phonological awareness and phonics in early literacy education.

2. Theoretical models of how children learn to read and how phonological awareness instruction fits in to these theories.

3. Phonological awareness assessments based on the theoretical models.
Terms Defined
Phonological Awareness: "Broad umbrella term used to describe one's general ability to focus on the sounds of language rather than its meaning or written characteristics" (Hill, 2006, as cited by Wilson and Colmar, 2008, p. 91).

Phonemic Awareness: "Focuses on sounds alone and is the ability to deal explicitly and segmentally with phonemes, the smallest unit of sound" (Foorman, Franics,Fletcher, Schatschneider, & Mehtam, 1998, as cited by Wilson and Colmar, 2008, p. 91.

Phonics: "Linking sounds to their printed form" (Adams, 1990, Smith, Simmons, and Kamenui, 1998, as cited by Wilson and Colmar, 2008, p. 91.
Essentially Phonological Awareness and Phonemic Awareness are Not the Same
Phonological awareness is the ability to separate the sounds of text from the meaning of text. Phonological awareness includes phonemic awareness.

Phonemic awareness is the understanding that sounds work together to form words and the ability to manipulate various sounds. Phonemic awareness is an auditory skill.
Phonemic Awareness is Displayed When:
Children represent recognition of:
Alphabetic Principle
Understanding that words are made up of letters that correspond with sounds.
"Using letter-sound correspondence to retrieve the pronunciation of an unknown printed string of letters; thus the capacity to decode written text" (Wilson and Colmar, 2008, p. 91).
Using phonics skills to begin reading text.
More Information About the Article:
The article was written in Australia. It speaks about the role of school counsellors (this is the proper spelling from the article) and teachers in promoting literacy skills among learners. Here in America we do not have school counsellors as a part of the reading program. This provides some interesting points to think about in how different countries promote different educational practices.
The Role of School Counsellors:
School Counsellors assess students and provide teachers with appropriate interventions to help students succeed. This is very similar to reading specialists in America.
Struggling Readers:
'The Matthew Effect'
"Children who have difficulty reading and feel badly about themselves as readers are less likely to want to read, and are more likely to avoid reading-related activites" (Stanovich, 1998, as cited by Wilson and Colmar, 2008, p. 91).
This is a problem because once students reach 3rd and 4th grade reading changes over from learning to read to reading to learn. If students have not yet established good reading skills, they are going to struggle for the rest of their educational career.
"Longitudinal studies have found that poor readers began school with little to no phonemic awareness, whereas children who became competent readers entered school with higher levels of phonemic awareness" (Wilson and Colmar, 2008, p. 91).
Therefore, students background in literacy skills plays into their success as readers.
The Importance of Phonological Awareness and Phonics in Early Literacy Education.
"Research evidence confirms that phonemic awareness is the single best predictor of early reading progress" (Adams, 1990, Bowey, 2005, Stanovich and Stanovich 2003, as cited by Wilson and Colmar, 2008, p. 91).
"Direct and systematic instruction in phonics contributes more significantly to children's initial and ongoing literacy development than any alternate approach of either unsystematic or no phonics" (DEST, 2005, as cited by Wilson and Colmar, 2008, p. 91).
Phonemic awareness is not only the best predictor of early reading progress but it is the best predictor of reading success.
Knowledge of phonemic awareness is more significant towards the result of students reading progress and success than is SES and IQ (Wilson and Colmar, 2008).
"Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States all have raised Phonemic Awareness to the top of the Literacy Agenda" (Wilson and Colmar, 2008).
"In December 2005, Australia's literacy report,
Teaching Reading,
called for the reintroduction of phonics in early literacy instruction... The report asserted that explicit and direct instruction in phonics is an essential component of a comprehensive and integrated reading program" (DEST, 2005, as cited by Wilson and Colmar, 2008, p. 92.
United Kingdom
"The United Kingdom's National Literacy Strategy (1998), strongly encouraged the use of phonics and mandated schools to use phonics" (Milburn, 2006, as cited by Wilson and Colmar, 2008, p. 92).
United States of America
"The United States' Report of the National Reading Panel (2000) found that for children to become good readers they must be taught phonemic awareness and phonics skills. In fact, studies undertaken in the United States identified phonemic awareness and letter knowledge as the two best school-entry predictors of reading success during the first two years of instruction" (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2000, as cited by Wilson and Colmar, 2008, p. 92).
Theoretical Models of How Children Learn to Read:
The Whole-Language Approach
"Children learn to read by reading" (Goodman, 1998, as cited by Wilson and Colmar, 2008, p. 94).
Meaning - centered approach: Children learn to read by making meaningful connections to the text.
Does not include explicit instruction of phonological awareness.
"The capacity to read words is developed through whole-word contextual guessing, often called look and say, which is frequently an ineffective strategy" (Snow, 1998, as cited by Wilson and Colmar).
Pro and Con:
Pro: "When skillfully implemented, whole-language practices can increase children's awareness of the purposes and processes of reading, build positive attitudes towards literature and literacy, develop children's strategies for interpreting text at a higher level, and enrich vocabulary and general knowledge" (Wilson and Colmar, 2008, p. 95).
Con: "Whole-language theory fails to acknowledge the significance of direct, explicit, and systematic instruction in phonemic awareness and phonics, or that it can be done explicitly within text (Colmar and Wheldall, 1992; McNaughton, 2002, as cited by Wilson and Colmar, 2008, p. 95).
Code-Based Approach
Focus on explicit and systematic instruction of reading skills including phonological awareness.
"In code-based instruction, children are taught letter-sound correspondences and spelling rules explicitly, and controlled vocabulary is used to provide practice in phonics, and in the skills of decoding and encoding familiar and unknown words" (Hill, 2006, as cited by Wilson and Colmar, 2008).
This provides the opportunity for assessment of specific phonological skills after direct instruction has occurred.
Assessment tools for reading should be used by school counsellors (or reading specialists here in America) that "incorporate or singly measure phonemic awareness and various elements of decoding skills associated with competent alphabetic skills" (Wilson and Colmar, 2008, p. 102).
Pro and Con:
Pro: "Systematic phonics instruction resulted in faster and higher word recognition skills than instruction that was less direct or did not include phonics (as would be experienced by children in whole language classes)" (Center, 2005, as cited by Wilson and Colmar, 2008, p. 96).
Con: "Drill and practice activities preclude children's enjoyment of reading, that learning letter-sound correspondences in meaningless contexts removes children from the real task of reading for meaning, and that skills taught out of context are not easily generalized and transferred to reading authentic texts" (Westwood, 2001, Yatvin, Weaver, and Garan, 2004, as cited by Wilson and Colmar, 2008, p. 96).
A Balanced Approach to Teaching Reading
"A balanced approach acknowledges the need for explicit, pervasive, systematic and diagnostic teaching of phonemic awareness and phonics alongside (and embedded within) the teaching of reading for meaning and enjoyment" (Wilson and Colmar, 2008, p. 97).
Includes both explicit instruction of phonological awareness and meaningful learning experiences.
This approach provides opportunity for assessment of specific phonological skills. These assessments will be presented in more detail on the next slide.
Phonological Assessments to Measure Phonemic Awareness Skills:
Letter and Sound Recognition Assessments
Phoneme Segmentation Assessments
Recognizing Rhyme Assessments
Letter and Sound Recognition Assessment: CORE Phonics Survey
Phoneme Segmentation Assessment: Yopp-Singer Segmentation Test

Visit this site: http://teams.lacoe.edu/reading/assessments/yopp.html
Recognizing Phoneme Rhyme Assessment:
This article emphasizes "the need for a comprehensive and explicit framework for effective phonemic awareness and phonics instruction and assessment within a balanced literacy program" (Wilson and Colmar, 2008, p. 90).
Please take this survey: https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/LTSM7MY

More Information About the Article
Phonemic Awareness and Phonics
More Information about Phonemic Awareness and Phonics
Five Levels of Phonemic Awareness
Oral Rhyming:
Oddity Tasks
Oral Blending
Oral Phoneme Segmentation
Phoneme Manipulation
Ways to Teach Phonics to Beginning Readers
More on Explicit Instruction and Activities
Analogic Phonics Instruction and Activity
The Link Between Early Readers and Phonemic Awareness
Is Phonics Here To Stay?
"The lack of phonemic awareness is the most powerful determinant of the likelihood of failure to learn to read because of its importance in learning the English Alphabet system or in learning how print represents spoken words"(Serna 26).

" If children cannot hear and manipulate the sounds in spoken words, they have an extremely difficult time learning how to map those sounds to letters and letter patterns- the essence of decoding" (Serna 26).
Phonemic awareness is the identification of sounds that make up the English Language and knowing that each word is made up of individual sounds.
Children need help to focus on sounds rather then just their separate meaning.
Phonics is the understanding about the structures and patterns of spoken language.
Making connections between letters and spoken language.
Phonemic awareness is the ability to use sounds, which is different then knowing about sounds.
Phonemic awareness identifies sounds as entities that can be blended and taken apart and manipulated.

Instruction and Activities for Phonemic Awareness
Phonemic awareness and phonics should be taught through "playful and engaging, interactive and social activities, and should stimulate curiosity and experimentation with language" (Serna 27).
Students decide whether or not words rhyme.

"Extend the Rhyme"
The teacher will say three rhyming words and asks the students to provide other words that rhyme with those words.
Find similarities or differences between initial, ending, and medial sounds.
Activity: "Put it together"
Using a prop the teacher will say the prop only likes to say complete words. The teacher will says parts of the words and the students have to figure it out and tell the puppet.
This will help the students to identify words in which the phonemes have been separated.
Students are asked to say in order each sounds in a word.
Students change words by adding, deleting, or moving a phoneme.
It gradually builds from basic elements to more subtle and complex patterns.
- "The goal is to convey the logic of the system and to invite its extension to new words that children will encounter on their own" (Serna 29).
"The most effective phonics instruction is explicit- that is, it gradually builds from basic elements to more subtle and complex patterns" (Serna 29).
Teacher builds phonics skills from the smallest unit.
- The teacher will control vocabulary stories in the beginning stages of reading instruction to help build confidence in using the various decoding strategies.
Teaching along with word families
" when readers come across unknown words, they tend to pay attention to patterns in the words, because the human brain function as a 'pattern detector'.

Making Words
An active, hands-on, manipulative activity in which children discover letter- sounds relationships and learn how to look for patterns in words.

- The teacher observes how words change as different letters are added.
"Numerous studies have shown that phonological awareness teaching programs that include letter-name and letter sound correspondence have a greater positive impact on reading development than interventions involving phonological awareness or sound-letter instruction alone"(Serna 28).
"Phonics instruction is clearly important because one of the big tasks of beginning readers is to figure out how our alphabetic language works"(Serna 28).

The most important part of teaching phonics is the way we teach it.
Analogic and explicit are seen as good ways of teaching phonics.
-The differences between phonemic awareness and phonics.
-Students with beginning reading skills thrive from phonics when taught with explicit and analogic ways.
-There are five ways to help students become phonemically aware.

What Did You Think of These Activities for Phonemic Awareness
Full transcript