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The Progressive Era: Photo Galleria
Transcript of The Progressive Era: Photo Galleria
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Living Conditions of New Immigrants
The Progressive Era: Photo Galleria
Themes and Topics
1) Ellis Island's Conditions
2) Angel Island and Asian Immigrants
3) Living Conditions of New Immigrants
4) Immigration Act of 1917
1) Water and Sanitation Safety
2) Conservation Movements
3) The Flexnor Report with Medical Schools
4) Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Immigration and Urbanization
Health and Environment
1) Women's Role as Nurses in Wars
2) Working Condition for Women
3) The Mann Act
4) The 19th Amendment
1) Limitation on Working Hours
2) Sherman Antitrust Act
3) The 16th Amendment
4) Child Labor Reforms
Health and Environment
1) The Workman's Compensation, Insurance, and Safety Act of 1912.
2) The Wisconsin Idea
3) The 17th Amendment
4) The Federal Reserves Act
Working Conditions for Women
Dirty and polluted streets were a common sight during the Progressive Era. The disposal system was not efficient enough to make rounds to pick up the trash. The trash piled up along-side apartment buildings, inside factories, and inside homes. The trash made the air musty and mold was growing everywhere. This time period was one of the most foul and dangerous times to live in because many insects and rodents contaminated food, drinking water and living spaces.
Ellis Island's Facility Conditions
The New York Harbor
In this photo, myriads of immigrants, mainly from Europe are clustered together on a ship to Ellis Island. These people are trying to escape religious prosecution, find a better job, and find a better life here in America. These vessels hold thousands of people who all need to go through the inspection process. Many diseases are passed on the boat which causes more people to get sick. The conditions were horrendous throughout the long voyage across the Atlantic. The people in this photo are relatively lucky because they get to stay on deck where there is fresh air. This tells us that these people trying to leave their old lives behind and hope for a better future in the new world.
Immigrants from small babies to the elderly waited in long lines to enter the Inspection Center. With only the clothes on their backs and a few personal items in their bags, they wanted to leave their miserable lives of religious persecution and food/job shortages behind and start a new life. Immigrants went through check-ups that lasted around 3-5 hours to make sure they were healthy and then their legal papers were checked to make sure they didn't commit and felonies. Only about 2% of more than 12 million immigrants were rejected from entering. People took risks by coming over to earn money and make sure their family members got to come here also. In some cases, people were separated from their loved ones when someone did not qualify to the American standard. Literacy was an important test to make sure they could read and understand the English language. This shows how relatively simple they kept the test to accept new immigrants into America.
This building part of the Ellis Island Hospital set up by the government in 1913. Many immigrants got treated here if they had minor illness. If they recovered, they were able to be inspected again at the immigration center.
The Ellis Island Hospital was relatively large with its 22-building complex. The minor ill immigrants were sent here to be able to recover and go get inspected again. The nurses surprisingly did not wear any protective masks or gloves during this time. This picture tells us that the U.S was welcoming anybody (respectively to a test) and that there were no health precautions taken to protect the nurses yet.
New immigrants had to go through a long terrible journey from their originating country to America. Often times, diseases were spread to others which worsened the situation. This put people at Ellis Island at risk of contracting these illnesses and would be rejected into America. The U.S had many meetings about the ordeal and decided to segregate those from the healthy ones. In 1913, The U.S Government decided to form a 22-building hospital complex on the connected branches of the island. This was designated for those who were minorly sick and would recover in a timely manner. If they noticed you had a major disease such as, Tuberculosis, they would send you back home. This gave immigrants another chance to be inspected and accepted to start a new life. This tells us that the U.S had a lenient acceptance policy for new immigrants and a demand for more people. As a result of the growing population, more homes needed to be built, more jobs were needed, and mass transit was necessary. The American economy started to slowly increase in productivity and the country started to become more diverse culturally.
Angel Island and Asian Immigrants
Immigration Act of 1917
The act refused to admit: "All idiots, imbeciles, feeble-minded persons, epileptics, insane persons,...,paupers, professional beggars,...,diseased, defective,...,criminals, polygamists," etc. ("The Immigration Act of 1917"). If inspectors detect a defect, entrance was not granted.
Prior to this enforced act, Americans did not support the promotion of insufficient immigrants that did not blend in with the culture and color of the already present 'natives'. These people disapproved and made sure the government and aliens understood their position in the battle for work, land, and education. The discrimination of Asians was not prevented, signs like this one in the picture, were put up in communities for 'whites only'. Many of the communities segregated the schools to keep distant from these invading Asians.
Women's Role as Nurses in World War I
This Group of women above pose before they take off to help in World War I. They are led by the YMCA and are consisted of about 100 women in their service unit. During the Progressive Era, many of these service units were created to expedite health services around the world.
This woman above is instructing other nurses how to properly inject a soldier with a vaccine against diseases in the battlefront area. It shows the progression of women as they start to take a stand in society during the progressive era.
Nurses help aid soldiers at the camps and allow them to rest and recover. Nurses also patched up and covered any wounds that soldiers got from fighting in the war. Most soldiers were able to go back and fight after being treated by the nurses.
Before the progressive era, women did not have as many rights as men did. They were not able to get a full education because colleges and schools would not accept them. Women were only allowed to study certain subjects like reading, writing, French, needlework and piano. Most women were not educated at all and could not read or write. These women were forced to find jobs that did not require much socializing, like a chef or laundry-lady. During the progressive era, women started to gain more roles in life than ever before. They had the opportunity to get a better education and most women took on their part to become nurses. Nurses were a vital aspect during wars. They aided wounded soldiers and helped pass out supplies for more soldiers. This task was dangerous and gruesome. Nurses experienced gory sights of shot soldiers, bloody arms, and many illnesses. This taught the women to be stronger and more hardy to these issues and helped develop their personalities. A nurse's job included traveling over the world to the battlefronts, leaving heir lives behind. They were always on the move whenever they were needed. Different countries like The Philippines, Guam, Samoa, and Haiti had contagious diseases that got people sick easily. The Influenza Virus epidemic came out which killed many soldiers, people, and a few nurses. This goes to show that women wanted to be more than just a humdrum person, they wanted to be someone useful and they definitely proved that they are capable.
Women became industrial workers, which paid a lot better than working on farms. Most took unskilled jobs in the garment trade. However, these jobs had dangerous conditions, low wages, and long hours. In 1911, 146 workers died in a fire in the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory. Most of the workers were immigrant girls. This caused a demand for reform by upper-class women.
Limitation on Working Hours/Shifts
The role of women on farms in the South and Midwest only changed slightly. Farm women now provided aid in all aspects of farming. They cooked, made clothes, raised livestock, and even plowed fields. This did not provide much money to the workers.
Not every woman could receive formal education in the city. In order to make money, these women did domestic work such a cleaning houses. Most of these jobs were filled by newly freed African-American slaves. About 70% of working women were servants.
Before the Civil War, very few women held jobs. Married women were expected to tend to their household and family. By the late 19th century, poor women needed to take small jobs to support their families. These small jobs consisted of farmers, industrial workers, teachers, maids, cooks, and laundresses. After the progressive era, many women held jobs and were educated. Women also had a say in their working conditions, wages, and hours.
The Workmen's Compensation, Insurance,
and Safety Act of 1912
Women work together in an assembly line fashion to sew together teddy bears throughout their work day. These women have to produce a set amount of bears by a certain time in order to be considered useful.
Children work in an Indiana glass factory in dirty and confined areas until 9 PM. The unsanitary conditions allowed for diseases to spread among coworkers and causing many people to die.
Sherman Antitrust Act
The Sixteenth Amendment
Child Labor Reforms
The Wisconsin Idea
The Seventeenth Amendment
The Federal Reserves Act
The Flexner Report with Medical Schools
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
The Mann Act
The Nineteenth Amendment
In 1890, 639,943 people out of the 1,515,301 people who lived in Manhattan were foreign born; by 1910, the number of immigrants had doubled to 1,252,954. Families often moved to the Lower East Side in Manhattan because the tenement houses, or apartment buildings, had a low, affordable rate. However, the apartments were not very accommodating; many times as many as four families lived on one floor, in spaces with three rooms that included a kitchen, living room, and a cramped bedroom. There would frequently be seven or eight people living in each individual apartment and there were no bathrooms within the building until 1905 and no electricity until 1918. It wasn’t until photographers, such as Jacob Riis, started exposing the situations that the more affluent residents of New York City became aware. Riis, a Dutch-American journalist, is one of the most notable documenters of the living conditions because of the book he published called, 'How the Other Half Lives: Studies among the Tenements of New York'. With the invention of flash photography, Riis was able to photograph the poorly lit areas and capture the gravity of the situation. Along with the tenements, he also revealed the sweatshops and factories that many of the tenement residents, including children, labored in. The effect was monumental; many of the worst tenements and sweatshops in New York were torn down and city schools began to be reformed. Decades of improvements with the living conditions, sewers, garbage collection, and indoor plumbing followed, due to the public’s reactions.
A Rear Tenement Room, New York. Photographs like this one gave insight to the conditions that immigrants lived in in tenement houses in Upper East Manhattan.
The Immigration Act of 1917 created restrictions to the incoming immigrants. Immigrants had to endure tests and evaluations that lasted five or more hours. In this duration, physical evaluations, and literacy tests were required. In these evaluations, if the immigrant was mentally disabled, retarded, or had a deficiency, they were rejected from entering. However, if it was a sickness, sometimes immigrants were allowed to be hospitalized in hospitals like the New York Harbor Hospital, until cured to retake evaluations.
Jobs were important to be able to survive and get to eat something. Adolescents, and the elderly, all worked for their families and earn more money. Mothers and fathers also sent their young and able children "from the day he is old enough to pull thread" to work and earn more money for the household. Most factory workers, especially in the south, were paid minimum wage. These people worked for profound long hours as well. Scientific management was implemented to expedite production of goods and required the workers to stay to complete their individual tasks. At steel mills, people were required to work 7 days a week. Seamstresses worked 6 days a week for 12 or more hours a day. The workers began to get fed up with the ridiculous shifts. They decided to form labor unions to rebel, such as the National Labor Union. These unions were destructive to the 'status quo' and caused a lot of damage to the economy. During the progressive era, the government decided to step in and fix the problem. Working alongside child labor reformations, in 1898, the Supreme Court made laws to make sure working hours were manageable and safe. After they put the laws into action, workers were more focused, alert, and less injuries were recorded. This set a new outlook on the work forces and reduced the amounts of labor unions protesting against the factories.
Women also began to take jobs that required a high school education. They worked in stores, offices, and schools. By 1890, there were more women graduates than men.
Many workers in factories were forced to work in unsafe and dangerous conditions. In addition to the dangerous work area, they had to withstand long workshifts that started from the early morning to late at night, 6-7 days a week. If a worker got sick or injured, they were not allowed to get a sick-leave or a break. Workers were not even allowed to have a lunch break during their job. Many workers suffered injuries to their bodies and many died trying to earn a living. In 1882, an average of 675 laborers were killed in work-related accidents each week. Ten to Twenty percent of the workers were children under 15 years old, even as young as 5. Workers were not content with the way they were forced to work. Hundreds of unions started to up-rise in opposition to the harsh rules. In March 1911, a group of seamstresses went on strike and decided to set fire to the Triangle Shirtwaist factory in New York City. Machinery, piles of cloth, and people died on the eighth, ninth and tenth floors. In total 146 women died due to smoke inhalation and limited entry-exit way. After this incident, New York and Massachusetts state decided to investigate this issue and find a solution. In 1912, a new act was created titled “The Workingmen’s Compensation Act.” This act entitled workers to have insurance to cover them for injuries, the same system we have today. After this act was passed and put into action, most workers were better accounted for because they had the ability to sue and collect money from employers if need be. This was an incentive for the employers to clean up and renovate their factories to be worker-friendly and sanitary. The workers greatly benefited from this because less accidents occurred and they had more rights as worker than before.
Many laws and restrictions have been passed to improve the population and regulate the types of people who make it pass U.S. territory borders. Many of these laws hurt the rights of the immigrants already inhabited on the U.S. soil; the immigration act of 1917 was in the favor of the 'natives' of America, rather than the speechless immigrants. Prior to the official promotion of this law, the Chinese Exclusion Act was created to limit the immigration of all Chinese persons, excluding teachers, students, and vacationers. This act rebounded off of the Chinese Exclusion Act, it prohibited almost ALL Asians from entering the U.S. territory; this led the act to be nicknamed the Asiatic Barred Zoned Act. Aside from the exclusion of Asians, there were many strict rules that were enforced to all the new immigrants arriving to the U.S.. Many of the settled Americans were not in favor of the arriving Asians. They disapproved of the way it disrupted the communities. The hatred of the Asian ethnicity led to more serious actions that led to the halt of Asian immigrants. Literacy tests were introduced to immigrants above the age of sixteen, everyone who did not know how to read or write in a native language or speak English was rejected. Many of these immigrants did not have an advantage of attending school prior to emigrating.
This act created many conflicts upon neighboring countries, and immigrants who cannot enter. This created a significant time gap in the U.S., that prevented over ten years of immigrants from Asia to emigrate. It prevented many different ethnicities to enter the country, therefore barricading and segregating the different available races.
Chinese immigrants arrived on the West Coast of American in small numbers from 1851 to 1883. Many came after being told of the California gold rush. Without the Chinese immigrants, the first transcontinental railroad would not have been built at the speed it was. Once the railroad was completed, the immigrants went to farming, mining, and domestic services.
Japanese emigration boomed in 1884 when the Japanese government allowed Japanese workers to be recruited by Hawaiian planters. Immigration continuously increased as the U.S. annexed Hawaii and word spread of high American working wages. In fact, 30,000 left Japan for the United States in 1907 and by 1920, there were more than 200,00 Japanese living on the West Coast.
While the United States’ East Coast welcomed immigrants on Ellis Island, Western immigrants passed through Angel Island. About all of these immigrants were Asian. Processing at Angel Island in San Francisco Bay was much harsher than at Ellis Island. The questions were harsher and the immigrants had to spend a long time in filthy ramshackle buildings.
American natives feared that Asian immigrants would steal their jobs because they accepted lower wages. The depression of 1873 made jobs scarcer than ever and labor groups pressured the government to restrict the immigration of Asians. The leader of anti-Chinese movement, Denis Kearney, ended his speeches with, “The Chinese must go!” Chinese immigration came to an end in 1882 when Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act. This banned everyone except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and government officials. Immigration remained banned until it was just restricted in 1902. The law was repealed in 1943.
The anti-Chinese feelings developed into negative feelings for Japanese and other Asian people. In 1906, the board of education in San Francisco put Japanese children into separate schools. This caused an outrage in Japan about the treatment of its emigrants. President Theodore Roosevelt made the Gentlemen’s Agreement of 1907-1908. In this agreement, if Japan agreed to limit emigration of unskilled workers to American then the San Francisco segregation order would be repealed.
The Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire that killed 146 women. This set back the company's production and many people saw this as a chance to fight for what is right. This incident sparked the interest of the state government into setting up new rules to make working conditions more humane. This is what started the "Workmen's Compensation, Insurance, and Safety Act" in 1912.
This young boy who appears to be 9 poses at a thread and spool factory. Many young kids like him work in dirty and confined areas. The work days are long and tiring. Many kids got hurt from doing jobs and became sick and infected in their wounds from dirty work places.
As cities grew larger, so did the challenge of keeping them clean. Many pests such as roaches and rodents scurried through streets, factories, and in homes. Trash was a major problem that polluted everything. It was thrown in bodies of water, on the streets, and piled up in homes. All these factors contributed to dirty water and filthy towns. This also created new diseases in the area and the death toll was extremely high. Food from factories was not safe to eat because flies and rats were a common sight in the areas. Fresh meat was the most foul because rats would eat some of the meat, defecate,and die on the meat stacks. Citizens of New York did not really care how their living conditions in their town was like and did not bother to take the initiative to clean it up. Government officials ,influential businessmen, and reformers were appalled by the disgusting living conditions. "How can these people make a proper decision in an election living in these destitute conditions?" These group of high-ranked men decided to enhance the image of New York. These group of men wanted a city of prosperity and their set-back were the tenement homes. Lawrence Veiller was the leader of the Charity Organization Society of NYC and a socialist. He created the 'Tenement House Reform' from the early 1800s to 1900. This reform was used to eradicate the slums in the tenement buildings and then the union cleaned up the place and included Settlement houses to the neighborhood. These Settlement houses were mini clinics that people could turn to for check-ups, sanitation education, recreation, education, and social betterment. Their ideas were effective and people started to learn how to stay neat and sanitary in their homes. It allowed citizens to live a healthier and more stable life. Personal hygiene was improved which affected the entire city as a whole. People took pride of their city and are better off than they were before.
Prior to the creation of the Food and Drug Act of 1906, companies like the Armour's Packinghouse processed and packaged meats along with other impurities. Philip Armour and Gustavus Swift were the meatpacking kings of the time period. Although their success included the declination in quality of their products, they have yet to reveal the true authenticity of their products. Consumers would buy these products without knowing that the truth could potentially poison, injure, or even kill if consumed or used. Not only were theses products falsely advertised, the actual product sometimes did not include the true material stated.Sausages included grind meat but also included saw dust, dead rodents, and even spoiled meat. The low-grade meat that was left on the bones were not left unused, they were often used in animal by-products such as hairbrushes, oils, drugs, and even in canned foods like pork and beans. While the efficiency decreased the amount of pollution, many of the products produced were not consumable.
After the creation of the Food and Drug Administration(FDA) was create, companies that offered deceptive advertising were closely inspected. Companies need to have products approved prior to distribution, they were required to have labels stating ingredients and directions of use. The promotion of the FDA allowed for safer use of products and less injuries to the person. The working environment and health of persons working in these factories improved, leaving a cleaner and safer environment for the production of safer products. These improvements prevented possible future injuries and sickness to consumers.
These group of young children are participating in a club at a settlement house learning to play games which was a way to civilize tenement youth.
Meat production factories had unsanitary habits that led to contaminated products. The lack of safety utensils and sanitation allowed contaminated particles like saw dust, feces, rodents, etc. to be included into products that would be consumed and used by buyers. Improvements to these malfunctions allowed a safer working environment to workers, and safer sanitized products for consumers.
The Sherman Antitrust Act was passed in 1890 to deal with the government’s concern that expanding corporations would eliminate competition and gain too much control. The act made it illegal to form a trust that presented a conflict with free trade between states or other countries. Since the term trust was not clearly defined, it was hard to prosecute companies. As the consolidation of businesses continued, the government no longer attempted to carry out the Sherman act.
The 'Meat Kings' created a process that would be used to butcher meat quicker and more effectively. This allowed more livestock to be butchered and more meat to be used. It allowed for one worker to have one simple job rather than butchering an entire piece of livestock. This process was similar to the assembly line, where workers' jobs were separated to accomplish more work in time span.
Many industrialists used horizontal integration to make mergers with their competitors. This sometimes occurred when one company buys all the stock of another. The goal of doing this is to achieve a monopoly. Holding companies were created to buy out the stock of other companies; The United States Steel used this tactic. Other corporations such as the Standard Oil Company used trust agreements. In this agreement, a group of trustees would be given stocks by their trust participants.
Prior to the nineteenth amendment, women have been neglected due to sex. Protests and boycotts have occurred, many women had fought for this day to come, on May 19, 1919, the legislature signed the article for women's suffrage. This amendment allow women to vote without discrimination towards their sex. This step allowed for further improvement towards male and female equality.
These are some of the Women's Suffrage leaders that contributed to the development of the nineteenth amendment. The individuals promoted movements and protests to allow all women the right to vote.
The leaders of the Women's suffrage movement opened a headquarters in Ohio for women to learn how to vote. This building also became very famous for it's large advertisement of Women's rights for voting.
In this photo, the women are crowded around the Kentucky Governor Edwin P. Morrow, as he signs the nineteenth amendment.
Factories during the Progressive Era wanted extra labor workers with low pays; in response, companies resorted to the utilization of children as laborers. Organizations like the National Child Labor Committee, organized events to promote the termination of child labor for children under 18 of age. These organizations not only provided a force against child laboring companies, but they also came in with back-up against the products made by underage employees. The legislature attempted to pass laws to enforce companies to not hire under-aged workers. President Woodrow Wilson signed the "Tax on Employment of Child Labor" law in 1919. This law implemented a tax on all products that were produced by children. Although Congress declared this law unconstitutional, it implemented a long term effect on the companies with child laborers and the employment of children the age of fifteen and younger decreased over 50% within ten years.
Boys in a Cigar Factory, Indianapolis, IN
These boys are in an environment that contains drugs that could lead to further damage to their health.
Workers Stringing Beans, Baltimore, MD
June 7, 1909
In this photo, these children appear to be within the ages 5-15. At such a young age, they are exposed to vile environments that can stunt the improvement in health and capability.
These women led the movement to the abolition of child labor. One of the most famous was Florence Kelley.
At the beginning of the 20th century, many new technologies allowed women to be more independent and to support themselves. Concerns about the country’s morality and rumors about women being forced into prostitution began to circulate. Many people feared girls would be stolen off the street, drugged, and moved throughout the country by immigrants who were new to the country. It was because of this that Congressman James Robert Mann, for whom the bill is named for, wrote the act that made it a crime to transport women across state lines for the purpose of prostitution or debauchery or for any other immoral purpose; President Taft signed it into law in 1910. Heavyweight boxer Jack Johnson was one of the first to be arrested under the new law. Many people believe his case was racially motivated though, seeing as he was a black man with a white girlfriend. Despite the Supreme Court holding the Mann Act to be constitutional, it has been amended significantly. In 1978 it was updated to protect commercial exploitation of minors; in 1986, it was also changed to focus on various criminalizing aspects of child pornography and replacing “debauchery” and “any other immoral purpose” to “any sexual activity for which any person can be charged with a criminal offense” to make it gender-neutral.
Jack Johnson and his girlfriend. Jack Johnson was one of the first to be prosecuted under the new law; many believe it was because of his race.
An early first operation at Meharry Medical College. Meharry was one of the only African-American colleges that met the academic standards proposed by the Flexner Report.
Before the early 20th century, a medical degree could basically be bought; a high school diploma wasn’t even needed to enter a medical college. The standard of medical schools were much less than what they are today and they consisted mostly of local practitioners talking about their experiences. Nothing that is required today such as laboratories, anatomy classes, even basic science classes, was necessary and the quality of doctors was inadequate. Abraham Flexner, a professional educator at Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, was one of the first to investigate the state of the medical schools of the time. Flexner, a graduate from John Hopkins University School of Medicine, put forth an idea that John Hopkins was the ideal of what a medical school should be. At that university, a college degree was required, there was a four-year curriculum, students were regularly tested, and laboratories were used in plenty. Because of this, Flexner’s view included the belief that analytic reasoning should hold a great importance in the training of physicians. Additionally, Flexner pictured a clinical phase of education in teaching hospitals, where doctors could look into questions thought of by students; in addition, superior patient care could also be taught. He recommended a serious reduction in the number of schools in the United States and Canada so that the surviving schools would be more committed to medical research and academic superiority. Flexner’s irritation with the status of medical schools combined with his fascinating writing style enabled the report to have great success.
The 17th Amendment provided for the direct election of U.S. Senators. It was ratified in 1913.
For the first 125 years, United States senators were elected by state legislatures. Proposals to amend the Constitution were first suggested in 1826 by the U.S. House of Representatives however, was not seriously considered until the late 19th century when it gained popularity. By the end of the 1800s, there had been multiple cases of state legislatures coming to a standstill over the election of Senators, therefore resulting in vacancies in the Senate which lasted for months, and even years. In some instances, political machines gained control over the state legislatures and Senators elected were dismissed as their instruments. Eventually, The House of Representatives passed a number of resolutions proposing a constitutional amendment for direct election of senators. Each time, however, the Senate refused to vote. The strategy was changed and Article V of the Constitution, which states the Congress must call a constitutional convention for proposing amendments when two-thirds of the state legislatures for one, was used. Despite the method never having being used before, many states began applications to Congress for the convention; Congress finally reacted when nearly two-thirds of the states had sent in applications. The House of Representatives finally passed House Joint Resolution 39 in 1911, which proposed an amendment for the direct election of senators. The senate adopted the amendment after a close vote later in 1911 and a year later the House accepted it and sent it to the states to be ratified. April 8, 1913, marked the day when the proposed amendment was ratified by three-quarters of the states and officially included at the 17th Amendment.
The first income tax was prompted by the Civil War and was comprised of a three percent tax on all annual incomes over $800. Congress imposed a two perfect tax on annual income, later in the 1890s; however, it was quietly ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. By the beginning of the 20th century, members of the Republican and Democratic parties urged a constitutional amendment allowing a Federal income tax. On July 12, 1909 Congress finally ratified a joint resolution proposing such an amendment. By early 1913, three quarters of the states had approved it officially certified on February 25 of the same year. In that time, less than one percent of the population due to exemptions and deductions; tax rates rose to six percent on income over $500,000. At first, some people were upset with the tax and tried to claim that the amendment had been passed unconstitutionally in effort to have it repealed. However, it has been proven to be passed lawfully and is a legal part of the Constitution.
The 16th Amendment provided an income tax.
Families would often lodge together so their rent would cost less. However, the living conditions were very cramped and filthy.
The Federal Reserve Act essentially led to the development of the United State's Federal Reserve System. Prior to the approval of this act, the government had no control over the currency and no central banking system. Private individual banks would create new forms of currency that would cause hassle because it was not accepted in all places. After four years of the U.S. running on a corrupted system, the Congress decided it would be best to have a banking system to control the monetary needs. On December 23, 1913, President Woodrow Wilson approved and signed the law that would create a Federal banking system called the Federal Reserve System.
This system has served the government well. The U.S. utilizes this system to control the currency, and back-up the currency that flows throughout the states. The formation of the reserve system has created a more stable economy and stable finance. The U.S. continues to utilize the Federal Reserve System to organize and protect the U.S. Dollar
Not much attention was paid to the nation’s natural resources until Roosevelt became president. The U.S. Forest Bureau in 1887 and a national forest reserve did not stop private interests from destroying valuable wilderness. Forests were leveled, cattle overgrazed, lumber companies did not replace the trees they cut down, and cities dumped sewage and industrial wastes into rivers. This caused for a waste of natural resources and even health hazards.
Roosevelt alerted Americans that resources were not endless. John Muir, a naturalist and friend of Roosevelt, convinced the President to make 148 million acres of forest reserve. On top of this, Roosevelt set aside 80 million acres for research and 1.5 million acres for water-power sites. He also created over fifty wildlife sanctuaries and national parks. Muir wanted complete preservation of the wilderness. Instead, Roosevelt and Pinchot wanted areas preserved for wilderness while other areas would be used to improve the economy. The president's water projects made agriculture possible in certain wilderness.
The Wisconsin Idea started as a philosophy embraced by the University of Wisconsin. The idea was first declared by the university’s president, Charles Can Hise, in 1904. This Progressive-era policy applied the expertise of the state's university to social legislation that benefited all the state's citizens; it led to classic programs such as regulation of utilities, workers' compensation, tax reform, and university extension services; sometimes expressed that the boundaries of the university are the boundaries of the state.
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NPR, prod. "The Long, Colorful History of the Mann Act." NPR. 11 Mar. 2008. Radio. Transcript.
Siegal, Johnathan R. "Income Tax Page." Income Tax Page. The George Washington University Law School, n.d. Web. 04 Nov. 2013.
"Simkin, John. "1917 Immigration Act." Spartacus Educational. Spartacus Educational, Sept. 1997. Web. 4 Nov. 2013.The Library of Congress. "Immigrant Life in New York." Immigrant Life in New York. The Library of Congress, n.d. Web. 03 Nov. 2013.
"The History of the Federal Reserve System." Federal Reserve Bank Of Cleveland. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Nov. 2013.
The Immigration Act of 1924 (The Johnson-Reed Act)." U.S. Department Of State: Office Of The Historian. Office Of The Historian, Bureau Of Public Affairs, United States Department Of State, 2012. Web. 4 Nov. 2013.
The National Archives. "The Documents That Made April Famous." The Documents That Made April Famous. The National Archives, 29 Mar. 2013. Web. 04 Nov. 2013.
The National Archives. "17th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Direct Election of U.S. Senators." 17th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Direct Election of U.S. Senators. The National Archives, n.d. Web. 04 Nov. 2013.
The National Women’s History Museum. Copyright 2007. Web. 2 November 2013.
"The 1938 Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act." U.S. Food And Drug Administration. U.S. Department Of Health And Human Services, 24 Sept. 2012. Web. 4 Nov. 2013.
"Turning Points." Progressivism and the Wisconsin Idea. Wisconsin Historical Society, n.d. Web. 05 Nov. 2013.
Pollution and Sanitation in the Progressive Era. 30 September 2009. Web. 2 November 2013.
Women in US Military- US Military Nurses in WWI. n.d. Web. 3 November 2013.
The Statue of Liberty- Ellis Island Foundation. n.d. Web. 2 November 2013.
16th Amendment. 1913. Photograph. Washington, D.C. 16th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Federal Income Tax (1913). The National Archives. Web. 4 Nov. 2013.
17th Amendment. 1913. Photograph. Washington, D.C. 17th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Direct Election of U.S. Senators (1913). The National Archives. Web. 4 Nov. 2013.
1) Reforming their World: Women in the Progressive Era.
The National Women’s History Museum put this website together as a secondary source to inform and educate people about women during the Progressive Era. This document tells us many facts about the lives of women when they had no rights all the way until they could get a better education and better jobs. The author’s overall tone of the website is informative stating many accurate facts and adding pictures to go along as a visual. The author failed to mention the comparison of the lives of men to women during this era, however, touched on the key points that were sufficient.
2) Pollution and Sanitation in the Progressive Era
This website called edublogs, is a forum of many educators, museum staff, and everyday people that post articles and stories. Sora Chan wrote an article on the pollution and sanitation crisis during the Progressive Era. It was published on September 30, 2009 and targeted those who want to know more about the horrific living conditions during the era.The author seems to be a young writer who wanted to share his/her knowledge about the health issues in the 1800s to 1900s. She accurately talked about the many factors that caused the trash to build up and diseases to spread through towns. Pictures and some specific dates were not said in the article.
3) Tenements Houses and Progressive Solutions
This website is from Fordham University in New York. The author’s name is Camille Avena and created this secondary source to the school’s website. It’s purpose was to express the dirty living conditions of tenement houses and what the government and socialists decided to do to solve/clean it. The target audience are people who browse this website to learn more about what the school is like and/or those who want to learn more about what people did to clean up during the Progressive Era. This author seems to be a history professor or a historian who knows information on this topic. The document implemented pictures and details like dates, cities, and activities which helped further give the reader a better understanding of the conditions. The author did not leave out major details or forget any necessary information.
4) History and Collections: Women in Military Service for America
This secondary resource was put together to inform the public about how women served in wars as nurses and traveled around the globe to help in the battlefronts. This author(s) used many details like historical events and dates that was useful and helpful for informational purposes. Pictures to back up the evidence was not on the website.
5) The Army Nurse Corps in WWII
Judith A. Bellafaire created this secondary source brochure to show women’s importance as nurses during wars. She wanted to attract the attention of people who want to know about women’s rights and roles during World War II. This brochure included many numbers different examples of what women did during wars. Overall, Bellafaire’s tone was informative and leisurely. Pictures were left out probably to the graphic nature of wounded soldiers and men.
6) The Statue of Liberty: Ellis Island
The group of authors who created this secondary source website decided to make it informational. It was intended to inform readers on the conditions of Ellis Island and what immigrants had to go through to get into America. The authors accurately portray the conditions during the migration to America and the many diseases and crowds that were ever so common. The authors included pictures and statistics that helped wrap the point across.
7) The United States Department of Labor
This secondary website was probably created by a group of government officials posted on The US Department of Labor. This was created to inform those about the horrible and perilous conditions in work areas before the Progressive Era and what steps people took to solve the problem. The authors seem to be legit in the sense of they have access to federal sources which makes the site accurate. Pictures were not included within the website due to the graphic nature of severed limbs, sick children, and inhumane acts.
1)This article was written and posted by the Wisconsin Historical Society. The audience the article is intended for is students, Wisconsin citizens, or anyone else interested in the state's history. The site is credible because it is run by a credible organization (.org).
1)The New England Journal of Medicine
Malcolm Cox wrote the article pertaining to the Flexner Report for the New England Journal of Medicine. The intended audience was also doctors, people in the medical profession, or those simply interested about the history of medical schools. The author is credible, as he is a doctor and has a medical degree and since the article was written, there have been no drastic changes in the value of medical schools, which is what the article is addressing and what the Flexner Report addressed.
2)The Library of Congress: Immigrant Life in New York
The Library of Congress created the website to provide information about the tenement houses in which immigrants lived in in the 1900s. The Library of Congress is a credible source because is is funded by the government and has been around for hundreds of years. It left out some information because the website is for younger kids but it is still very informative.
3)Understanding the Flexner Report
Kenneth Ludmerer wrote this commentary on the Flexner Report. He wrote it so as to help people understand what it was really about and why Abraham Flexner wrote it in the first place. He is a doctor and the Association of American Medical Colleges sponsored it, so it is a credible source.
4)The National Archives: The Documents That Made April Famous
The National Archives wrote this article about the 16th Amendment to inform people of the history behind it and why it was important. The National Archives is located in Washington, D.C. and showcases some of the nation’s greatest and most important documents, so it’s a credible source. It isn’t the most detailed article but there is still a lot of helpful information.
5)The National Archives: 17th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Direct Election of U.S. Senators
The National Archives wrote this article about the 17th Amendment to inform people of the history behind it and why it was important. It’s a credible source because the National Archives showcases some of the nation’s most important documents. It is pretty informative and also provides other documents to look at that are related to the 17th Amendment.
6)New York Times: Immigration Explorer
This was an interactive activity created by the New York Times to demonstrate the amount of immigrants in the United States throughout the years and where they came from. The New York Times is a credible and well-respected newspaper and this activity is well-put together. It provides the right amount of information considering what the activity consists of.
NPRL: The Long, Colorful History of the Mann Act
NPR stands for National Public Radio and it’s a well-respected radio station that airs important and interesting new stories all across the country. This particular radio show’s aim was to give insight to the Mann Act, and the interesting history behind it. The show is detailed but not overflowing with information because only a certain amount of time on air is allotted for it; however, there is still a lot of information.
7)Income Tax Page
This was written by Jonathan Siegel, who is a law professor at George Washington University School of Law. He wrote the article to provide information about the 16th Amendment to many people who probably don’t know the history of it. He provided a lot of information and didn’t leave anything important out.
• Origin: The author is anonymous, however the Immigration Policy Center: American Immigration Council wrote this.
• Purpose: To offer a background to the history of the U.S. This is merely a short history lesson within an immigration council. It is to inform readers about the past and reasons to immigration.
• Value: There seems to be a biased side in the text. The author puts more sympathy towards the Asians in the text. Readers can see the justified text towards the subjects in the text, the restrictions seem harsher, and the laws seem stricter.
• Limitation: When the author’s opinion was stated in one of the paragraphs.
• Origin: The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Basically the government.
• Purpose: It is for background information about the board members of the system. It was to answer unanswered questions in the ‘FAQ’ box. To inform the public eye about the Feds.
• Value: Used to exemplify the U.S. Federal Reserve System. It can be viewed as a way to promote the use of the Federal Reserve System and to create a better foundation for others learning about the Federal Reserve System.
• Limitation: It was to provide an understanding so not much information could have be put into the document.
• Origin: Kay Davis is the author of this document. It was for the University of Virginia. Essentially it was for the students and public.
• Purpose: To inform students and readers about the topic of Progressive Era. She created it for the University of Virginia, so it can be inferred that it was for an educational purpose.
• Value: It’s mainly informational text. She took information from different documents to collaborate into one large document of an overall overview of the topic of Child Labor.
• Limitation: It was missing the actual events of what happened to children at labor. It may have been done unintentionally due to the lack of resources and length of the document. It missed some key facts as to what happened to children.
• Origin: created by Spartacus Education as a secondary source that was last edited in September of 1997
• Purpose: Educational purposes to explain and elaborate on events in history. For students, teachers, and researchers.
• Value: It has some primary quotes in the explanation, that reflect the people's reactions to the law that was passed. It serves as a translation between feelings of others during that time period.
• Limitation: Doesn't include the full story behind each law and explanation stated in the description. Some of the people did not have a fully stated background in that time period.
• Origin: Created by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, last edited on September 24, 2012
• Purpose: To inform the public on the past history of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). There is no other place to find the history of the FDA, except for the FDA itself. However it is to inform the public about the public history of the formation of the FDA from the Food and Drug Act of 1938.
• Value: The information stated within the document has been recorded. This is the rewritten version of all the collected information from U.S. historians. The descriptions are vivid in detail explaining conditions that have been stated in other sources prior.
• Limitation: The explanations do not seem to have a biased side, even though in some parts the document is leaned more towards the federal government side. The FDA exaggerates in the details but not majorly to distort the information.
• Origin: Created by the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, a government based program
• Purpose: To inform the public about the history of the Federal Reserve Bank. Explains to readers what values, and events that could've occurred.
• Value: The information states what happened prior to the creation of the Federal Reserve System. And it describes the important information of the system. Although, the author is anonymous, we can tell it is towards the better of the government.
• Limitation: It was written to explain the Federal Reserve System in a more detailed text, although the text is written anonymously, it does have a slight biased side towards the government. The information doesn't explain the other parts in the process, just the success and possible failures before and after the Federal Reserves Act.
• Origin: The U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. No stated individual. It seems to be a secondary source.
• Purpose: To state the milestones and history of the United States. The intended audience is for any researcher or person who is looking for information about the U.S. history.
• Value: The source is merely a collection of information from the government’s historian. The perspective of the historians could favor more towards the government’s side, but it isn’t noticeable in the information within the text. The information can be seen from the way the government saw the events.
• Limitation: What happened post-act was left out, only a small amount of info was stated and was very vague. No errors have been notice, considering it is a governmental document that many people source from. It is only seen from one side of the event. No primary source of the act was recorded in the text. Readers do not know what types of conditions were truly endured.