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Racial Identity Theory

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Joshua Cruz

on 9 December 2013

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Transcript of Racial Identity Theory

Racial Identity Theory
Cross and Fhagen-Smith’s Model of Black Identity Development
Helm’s Model of White Identity Development (1995)
Ferdman and Gallego’s Model of Latino Identity Development (2001)
Kim’s Asian American Identity Development Model (1981, 2001)
Horse’s Perspective on American Indian Identity Development (2001)
Atkinson, Morten, and Sue’s Racial and Cultural Identity Development: Five Stage Model (1979,1989, 1993, 1998):
How did the exercise make you feel?
How did it feel to be one of the students on the “back” side of the line?
How did it feel to be one of the students on the “front” side of the line?
Were there certain sentences that were more impactful than others?
Resistance and Immersion
Synergistic Articulation and Awareness
One identifies with white culture, learns and assumes stereotypes and has no inkling to identify or learn about their own racial or ethnic heritage.
Encounter is the catalyst for one to question white culture and begin an interest in one’s own racial or ethnic group
Individual withdrawals from white culture to delve into his or her own racial or ethnic exploration in the effort to define a new identity.
Individual actively seeks to integrate the redefined identity into the dominant culture without compromising aspects of his or her own racial or ethnic identity
Optimum identity; Individual is able to identify as he or she wishes, appreciate other cultures including the dominant culture and balance all aspects of his or her heritage.
Atkinson et al.’s model served to be the primary model of all of the racial identity theories. The model conceptualizes the basic progressions an individual goes through when defining his or her racial identity.
The process of becoming black
Sector One: Infancy and Childhood in Early Black Identity Development
Contributing factors such as families, social networks and historical events all play a role in the early socialization of black children
Sector Two: Preadolescence
Development in this sector is influenced by the parents; high or low race salience or internalize racism
High race salience
Low race salience
Internalized Racism
Sector Three: Adolescence
Begin to develop a black self-concept, authenticating one’s own beliefs is key to an achieved identity
Individuals may confirm or redefine their salience in this sector
Sector Four: Early adulthood
Salience becomes prominent again
Low race salience
High race salience
Internalized racism
Sector Five: Adult Nigrescence
4 stages
Low race salience individuals will assimilate into mainstream with an appreciate of black culture, while internalized racism individuals will become anti-black
Events will cause conflict and a questioning of their black identity
Immersed into black culture become black nationalist or pro-black and entrench themselves in the culture and issues of the group
3 resolutions
Black nationalist
Sector Six: Nigrescence Recycling
Individual encounters an event, which calls into question their black identity. Those who have truly achieved a healthy self-concept will reach wisdom
Meet my friend Ajak Chol
Do we think he has assimilated into black culture?
8 mile
Chitling Test
Created by Adrian Dove
Thanks for listening, yo.
Phase 1- Abandonment of Racism
The theory assumes all individuals who identify as White begin with views of racism.
Lack awareness of racism and own white privilege
Lack of awareness replaced by guilt
Pressure to accept status quo
Phase 1- Abandonment of Racism
The theory assumes all individuals who identify as White begin with views of racism.
Lack awareness of racism and own white privilege
Lack of awareness replaced by guilt
Pressure to accept status quo
Phase 2- Evolution of Non-Racist Identity
Introspection of whiteness and look to educate themselves on other races
Uncomfortable with whiteness
Internalize new whiteness
Rowe, Bennett, and Atkinson’s White Racial Consciousness Model (1994)
Unachieved White Racial Consciousness
Unaware of role race plays in society
Refuse to identify as white
Aware of white identity
Achieved White Racial Consciousness
Individuals believe they are a superior race and believe in negative stereotypes
Individuals believe every race is equal, but will be opposed to the idea to enact measures to create equality
Individuals understand the intricacies of race and the role it plays in our society and individuals also have an clear vision of their White Identity
Individuals understand the reality of White privilege and understand the inequalities and injustice surrounding race
Let us see if we can figure out where this guy falls in our model
6 orientations
Latino- Integrated
Individuals understands our society in terms of race and identified with the larger Latino community
Individuals believe race is fluid and society is a dualistic construction of race.
Individuals have strong identification with specific subgroup within the Latino culture, belief that all other subgroups are subordinate
Latino as other
Individuals who hold no stake in a subgroup, often cause by the uncertainty of his or her heritage
Individuals claim a color-blind mentality and race is not important
White Identified
Individuals identify as white and the view, values and beliefs as such
5 stages
Ethical Awareness
Identity is formed through family structure, prior to integration of school and peers
White Identification
Individual actively attempts to assimilate and identify as White to avoid criticisms of differences
Awakening to social political consciousness
Increased political awareness and abandon identification with White society
Redirection to Asian American Consciousness
Individuals develop a sense of pride within themselves with support of their family, friends, social networks
Individual establishes healthy self-concept, integrate and interact with others outside of his or her own race
Horse's theory centers around the idea of consciousness.
Individual’s knowledge of language as important to culture, emphasizes the assumed identity
Individual’s consciousness is increased by the awareness and comprehension of the tribe’s history
Adoption of worldview that is consistent with traditions and culture of his or her heritage
Lastly, the amount of emphasis and individual places on his or her American Indian heritage
Privilege Exercise
learning goals
Safe space
What is privilege?
What are different kinds of privilege?
Historical Contexts of Race & Culture in the U.S.

Cultural, Racial Theory
Meets Practice:
In The Setting of Counseling and Therapy

(Derald Wing Sue & David Sue, 2003)
Emotional Components
Passions Unearthed
racism, discrimination, prejudice, personal blame, political correctness, anti-White attitudes, quotas,
Deep Reactions
Affect ability to communicate freely, honestly and to listen to others.
"Aside from race though..."

"But what about those other issues...."
Expressing and Exploring

Before productive change can occur

Facing and Working Through
Enable us to be Effective
in work with culturally diverse populations
Awareness, Improvement, No Shame
What is “culture”?
Beliefs, values, rules, practices, experiences, etc

Consistent...and changing.

Two Definitions
Inclusive Definition
race, ethnicity, national origin
and also
sexual orientation, disability, age, other significant reference groups
Socialization: many cultural groups, overlapping identities
e.g. Latino and Gay and….

All exert influence

Exclusive Definition
(just) racial and ethnic minorities
Concern: inclusive approach may help some avoid biases & dealing with issues of race/racism
“All counseling is multicultural” -concept is meaningless
Philosophical disagreements on gender and sexual orientation as distinct overall cultures.

Universality and Relativism
2 Perspectives: Emic & Etic
Etic: the culturally universal
disorders like schizophrenia, depression, and sociopathic behaviors exist in all cultures and societies
Emic: the culturally specific
Perspective: lifestyle, cultural values, and worldviews
affect the expression and determination of deviant behavior.
What to Base Tx On?
cultural universality?
Both are Valid
Some professionals focus on one more than the other

Most useful to Ask:
“What is universal in human behavior - that is also relevant to counseling and therapy?”

“What is the relationship between cultural norms, values, and attitudes - on the one hand- and the manifestation of behavior disorders and their treatments on the other?”

Multicultural Competence in Therapy
The Golden Trio
1. Awareness
2. Knowledge
3. Skills

1. Awareness - of the Therapist
Assumptions, Biases, Values
Acknowledge, deal with in a non-defensive, guilt-free manner
Considers the affect
Own Cultural Heritage
Comfortable with Differences from the Client
Sensitive to Circumstances, Self limitations
Need to refer?

2. Knowledge: Understanding Worldviews

Specific knowledge, information about the particular group
History, experiences, cultural values, lifestyle
Greater the depth → more effective
Continue to explore
Understanding of the sociopolitical system in the U.S.
With respect to the tx of marginalized groups
Disproportionate Minority Confinement and the American Conscious
Understanding of the General Theories in the Major schools of therapy
What are value assumptions of normality and abnormality?
How might that interact with values of the culturally different?
Institutional barriers may prevent some diverse clients from using mental health services
Hours and days of operation
Languages used to advertise services

3. Skills: Appropriate Interventions, Strategies, and Techniques
Therapist should be able to:
Generate a Variety of Verbal and Nonverbal Responses
Send & Receive Verbal and Nonverbal messages Accurately and Appropriately
Familiarity with Communication Styles

Subtly and indirectness valued?
Confrontation and directness valued?

e.g. socio-linguist Deborah Tannen coined the term for "high-involvement cooperative overlapping."

Be Aware of own Helping Style
Recognize limitations

Anticipate impact on the culturally diverse client

Play Helping Roles
Leading to Environmental Interventions
Not trapped by the conventional modes

Out of Office Strategies

Outreach, consultant roles, facilitators of indigenous support systems - discards the intrapsychic (internally focused) counseling model

Multiple Dimensions of Identity –a Framework
Levels of Personal Identity Model

Three Concentric Circles

1. Individual
2. Group
3. Universal

What is “race”?
A classification system used to categorize humans
into large and distinct populations or groups by
anatomical, cultural, ethnic, genetic, geographical, historical, linguistic, religious, and/or social affiliation.
17th century: observable physical traits; hierarchies; favoring certain ethnic groups.
17th-19th century: the ideology of race
"genetically differentiated" human populations
defined by phenotype
a taxonomy, of various groups above others, with characteristics that were considered primordial, natural, and enduring.
Involved in the justification of imperialism, colonialism, and slavery, from Europe and into the Americas.

The Indigenous, Migrants and Migration to the U.S.
Each migration period brought distinct national groups and ethnicities to the U.S.
European colonialists in the 15th, 16th, 17th centuries, and the concurrent Atlantic African slave trade
Mid-19th century: influx of migrants from northern Europe
Start of the 20th century: migrants from mainly from Southern and Eastern Europe
Post-1965: mostly from Latin America and Asia
Indigenous Era, and European Confrontation
Indigenous, native peoples of the United States
hunter gatherer societies, complex nomadic cultures, oral traditions
End of 1400’s - migration of Europeans to North America:
tension, conflict, ethnic violence, high Native American fatalities from exposure to European diseases
Colonial Era: Slavery’s Early Stages
Late 1500s: England, France, Spain and the Netherlands launch colonization programs in America
1600’s: increase in slave trade from Africa to the U.S. colonies
1642: MA - 1st colony to legalize slavery.
1650: CT legalizes slavery.
1661: VA officially recognizes slavery by statute.
1662: A VA statute declares that children born would have the same status as their mother.
1663: MD legalizes slavery.
1664: Slavery is legalized in NY and NJ
1680s: enslaved Africans imported to English colonies in much larger numbers, Colonists begin purchasing slaves in larger numbers, in place of indentured servants

Slaves subject to dehumanization and servitude, brutal whippings, beatings, rape, and forced separation of families.
A New U.S. - of Paradox
“We hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created equal…”
1776 George Washington and others have idea of "civilizing" Native Americans in preparation for assimilation as U.S. citizens.

1793 - invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney, and growth of slavery

1804: emancipation of slaves the north - but segregation persists

1808: import or export of slaves banned, but not internal slave trade.

1830:Indian Removal Act passed, authorizing relocatation of Native Americans from their homelands within established states to lands west of the MI River, accommodating European-American expansion.

1840’s-50s: Know Nothing movement in the NY area opposes Irish-Catholic immigration,

1850: Fugitive Slave Act - captured runaway slaves were to be returned to their masters

1864: 13th Amendment adopted - abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.

1876(-1965): The Jim Crow laws- state and local laws of racial segregation in all public facilities the South

1890: a "separate but equal" status for African Americans.

1882: Chinese Exclusion Act: limit the flow of Chinese immigrants to the U.S.

1891: a lynch mob stormed a local jail and hanged several Italians
Early 20th Century
1920’s: Ku Klux Klan- 4 million members (anti-Catholic, anti-Irish and anti-Italian sentiment; later the KKK targets those in the African American and Jewish communities).

1921: Emergency Quota Act
1924: Immigration Act of 1924 - to further restrict Southern and Eastern Europeans, especially Jews, Italians, and Slavs

1924: (from 1775) end of long chain of Wars with and against settlers and American Indians
Manifest Destiny- settlers destined to expand, remake the west
1924: Indian Citizenship Act - extended citizenship and voting rights to all American Indians.
1930’s: Great Depression - more emigration out than migration in

1929 - 1939: The Mexican Repatriation - many as two million people of Mexican descent were forced or pressured to leave the US.

1941: U.S. entry in World War II - African Americans, American Indians serve and are employed in wartime industries.
Navajo and Comanche Code Talkers.

1944, Korematsu v. United States:
Re. the forced relocation of Japanese Americans in Internment Camps
Associate Justice Murphy introduces word "racism" into lexicon of U.S. Supreme Court opinions
Post WWII - After Witnessing Fascism
1948: Shelley v. Kraemer - restrictive home sale contracts held unconstitutional

1953: Land Transfers law and Relocation
Transferred jurisdiction over most tribal lands to state governments in California, Oregon, Nebraska, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Alaska added in 1958.
Bureau of Indian Affairs enacted a new policy to persuade large numbers of Indians to relocate into urban areas; a failure. The first of many late 20th Century failures to "mainstream" the Native American population.

1954: Operation Wetback (Justice Dept) - 1,075,168 Mexicans deported

1954: Brown v. Board of Education - State-sponsored school segregation unconstitutional
1964: Reverend Dr. MLK Jr. receivs the Nobel Peace Prize for combating racial inequality through nonviolence.

1964: Civil Rights Act: remaining Jim Crow laws of segregation were overruled
1965: Voting Rights Act

1965: Immigration and Nationality Act (Hart-Cellar Act), national-origin quotas abolished.

1967: Loving v. Virginia - invalidates laws prohibiting interracial marriage.

1968: Indian Civil Rights Act (ICRA)

1968 - MLK Jr. Assassinated

1965 - 1970: Immigration in the U.S. doubles
Post-Civil Rights Era
Late 1960s-70s: Black Power Movement (Malcom X, Black Panthers)

Late 60’s-early 1970’s: Ethnic Studies Movement -diverse histories undervalued and ignored because of Euro-centric bias.

1971: Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education; desegregation busing

1972 (from 1932 start): termination of the Tuskegee syphilis experiment

1980s: desegregation busing in decline.

1970 - 1990: immigration in the US doubles again

1970’s -2013 Congressional and Presidential proclamations creating commemorative observances from “Indian Awarness Week” to every November as “National Native American Heritage Month”
The Last Few Decades
1990: Immigration Act of 1990 signed by G. H. W. Bush -
increased legal immigration to the United States by 40%.

1992 -Year of the American Indian (in light of Columbus quincentennial)

Late 1990s onwards: anti-immigration turns Nativism
future demographic projections of a less than 50 % white US
targeted particularly at diverse Latino groups

9/11/01 - terrorist attacks launched on US soil by Al-Qaeda ; 9/15/01 murder of Balbir Singh Sodhi of the Sikh religion, from India (turban wearing)

2000- 2005: ~8 million immigrants entered the U.S., more than in any other five-year period in the nation's history;
3.7 million entered without papers

2000’s: Race and Ethnicity in the U.S. Census is challenged, changed
Full transcript