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Aaron Valera

on 2 December 2013

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Aarón Valera
Pablo Saéz
Eva Maria Lopez


Francisco Saorín
Degree in primary eduaction
England accents
The term Cockney has geographical, social
and linguistic associations
It is often used to refer to working-class
Londoners in the East End
Cockney area
The region in which "Cockneys" are thought
to reside is not clearly defined
One must have been born within earshot of the
Mary St-le Bow Bells
The church of St Mary-le-Bow was destroyed in 1666
Before they were replaced in 1961, there was
a period when, by the "within earshot" definition,
no "Bow-bell" Cockneys could be born
Cockney Phonetic
Famous Cockneys
Michael Caine film star
Charlie Chaplin film star
Samantha Fox model/singer
What is Cockney Rhyming Slang?
Cockney Rhyming slang is a coded language invented
in the nineteenth century by Cockneys
They could speak in front of the police without
being understood
It uses a phrase that rhymes with a word,
instead of the word itself
Two languages dominate any discussion
of Language of Ireland - Irish and English.
Hiberno-English is now the national
Standard Language of Ireland.
Ireland has several main groups of accents,
related of the different influence of the colonisation
The Anglo-Normans from about 1167 brought the Norman-French and English languages:
The accents of Ulster: strong influence from Scotland
It s a mix of the English of the planters,
the strong Irish element that already
existed and the 'Old English'
It s the same English that in UK, but with a different accent.
Some of the Irish accents are quite difficult.
Part of the problem is speed.
Some characteristics
of Irish accent

How to do an
Irish accent:
in dublin...
is usual to drop the final `t', for instance: what, at, brat, sweet and treat.
This peculiarity, combined with the speed, makes comprehension really difficult.
Colin Farrell, from Dublin:
the use of Gaelic is stronger:
The distinction between “t” “d” and the pre-dental fricatives is usually lost.
Consonant “r” is pronounced in all positions. This “r” is strongly pronounced after other consonant.
The pronunciation of vowels usually shows similarities between English and Gaelic pronunciation.
Galway senior football player:
Ulster accent
•Belfast accents tend to be harsh, The diphthong /aʊ/ is pronounced approximately [əʉ], but wide variation exists, especially between social
classe there.
The Corkonian accent has a unique lyrical intonation.
Every sentence typically ends in the trademark elongated tail-off on the last word. In Cork heavier emphasis yet is put on the brrr sound to the letter R.
Tommy Tiernan - Cork Accent:
People from Kerry put heavier emphasis on the brrr sound to the letter R. For example: the word Forty is pronounced whereby the “r” exhibits the typified Irish
Another feature in the Kerry accent is the S before the consonant: The word Start becomes "Shtart." Stop becomes Shtop.
A.J Ellis invented the term “ Received Pronunciation” .

Daniel Jones said that RP is the accent "most usually
heard in everyday speech in the families of Southern English
persons whose menfolk have been educated at the great public
boarding schools

RP quickly came to be associated with a public-school education
followed by higher education at Oxford or Cambridge.

Kinds of R.P.
Gimson (1980) proposed:

Conservative RP : traditional accent associated with older speakers.

General RP: neutral regarding age, occupation, or lifestyle of the

Advanced RP: speech of a younger generation of speakers
The R.P. today
The rehabilitation
of regional accents

The use of R.P.
accents decrease

Spoken by less than 5% of population

It has an inmerse influence because it suggests

Dialect of BBC

(Received Pronunciation)
Concise Oxford English Dictionary :

"the standard accent of English
as spoken in the south of England“

People who talk
with R.P. accent
The British Royal Family
David Cameron, Prime Minister
Boris Johnson, Mayor of London
Rowan Williams, Former Archbishop of
Canterbury David Attenborough, broadcaster and naturalist
Rupert Everett, actor
Chris Huhne, former Secretary of State
for Energy and Climate Change.
Justin Welby, Archbishop of Canterbury

Others names
BBC English
Oxford English
the Queen's English
Standard English
RP (received pronunciation)
public school dialects
educated dialects

Welsh accent
Welsh is a Celtic language spoken in Wales (Cymru) by about
659,000 people, and in the Welsh colony (yr Wladfa) in Patagonia, Argentina (yr Ariannin) by several hundred peopl
There are also Welsh speakers in England (Lloegr), Scotland (yr Alban),
Canada, the USA (yr Unol Daleithiau), Australia (Awstralia) and New Zealand (Seland Newydd)

At the beginning of the 20th century about half of the
population of Wales spoke Welsh as an everyday language.

Towards the end of the century, the proportion of Welsh speakers had fallen to about 20%.
The number of Welsh speakers in Wales is around 750,000, and about 1.5 million people can 'understand' Welsh
There are an estimated 133,000 Welsh-speakers living in England

The earliest known examples of Welsh
literature are the poems of Taliesin,
which feature Urien of Rheged, a 6th century
king in what is now southern Scotland, and
Aneirin's Y Gododdin, a description of a battle
between Celts and Northumbrians which
occurred in about 600 AD.

Today there are radio stations and a TV
channel, that broadcast entirely or mainly in Welsh.

There are also weekly and monthly newspapers and magazines
About 500 books in Welsh are published annually,
and there is a thriving Welsh language music scene.

All school pupils in Wales study Welsh as a first or second
language for 12 years, from the age of 5 to 16.

There are currently over 440 primary schools and over 50
secondary schools in Wales that teach entirely or mainly throught the medium of Welsh.

Some courses at Welsh universities and colleges are taught through Welsh, and there are numerous Welsh courses for adults throughout Wales
Welsh is fairly closely related to Cornish and Breton,
and more distantly related to Irish, Manx and Scottish Gaelic
Here is an illustration of some of the differences and similarities between the Celtic languages using the phrase 'I live in Wales'
Welsh - Dw i'n byw yng Nghymru
Cornish - Trigys ov yn Kembra
Breton - E Kembre emaon o chom
Irish - Tá mé i mo chónaí sa Bhreatain Bheag
Scottish Gaelic - Tha mi a' fuireach anns a' Chuimrigh
Manx - Ta mee cummal 'sy Vretyn

Modern Welsh can be considered to fall
broadly into two main styles—Colloquial Welsh
(Cymraeg llafar) and Literary Welsh (Cymraeg llenyddol).

Colloquial Welsh is used in most speech and
informal writing
Literary Welsh is closer to the form of
Welsh standardized by the 1588 translation
of the Bible and is found in official documents
and other formal registers, including much literature.

Sample text in Welsh (Testun enghraifft yn y Gymraeg)

Genir pawb yn rhydd ac yn gydradd â'i gilydd
mewn urddas a hawliau. Fe'u cynysgaeddir â
rheswm a chydwybod, a dylai pawb ymddwyn y
naill at y llall mewn ysbryd cymodlon.

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and
rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience
and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood
Welsh English, Anglo-Welsh, or “Wenglish” refers to the dialects of English spoken in Wales by Welsh people
The dialects are significantly influenced by Welsh grammar and often
include words derived from Welsh.

There is a variety of accents found across Wales from the Cardiff
dialect to that of the South Wales Valleys and to West Wales.

Distinctive vocabulary and grammar

There exist distinctive grammatical conventions in vernacular
Welsh English.

In South Wales the word "where" may often be expanded to "where to“

The word "butty" is used to mean "friend" or "mate" yet in the north is more commonly understood to mean a sandwich
There is no standard variety of English that is specific to Wales


Spellings are almost identical to other dialects
of British English
Minor differences occur with words descended from
Welsh which aren't Anglicized as in many other
dialects of English.

As with other dialects of British English, -ise
endings are preferred. However, both
forms are acceptable
How to speak cockney slang....
1. apples = apples and pears = stairs = escalera
2. jam = jam jar = car = coche
3. trouble = trouble and strife = wife = esposa
4. lee = Lee Marvin = starving = muriendo de hambre
5. bread = bread and honey = money = dinero
6. britneys = Britney Spears = beers = cervezas
7. porky pies = lies = mentiras

English around the world
English is the most important language.
350 million of native speakers.
1000 million of native and non-native speakers.

English is the official or
co-official language in more
than 60 countries.

There are different variations of English
in the way of speaking or writing.

The British accent
the American accent:
-our (British) and -or (American). e.g. colour vs color
-re (British) and -er (American). e.g. centre vs center
-ce (British) and -se (American). e.g. defence vs defense
-ise (British) and -ize (American). e.g. centralise vs centralize
-yse (British) and -yze (American). e.g. analyse vs analyze
-ogue (British) and -og (American). e.g. dialogue vs dialog


British is non-rhotic (don't pronounce the
“r” sound)-- American pronounce the “r” sound

Check (American)- Bill (British); Fall-Autumn.

Australian Accent:
The Australian English uses British spelling and
vocabulary. Something that is typical of the
Australian accent is the use of diminutives ending in-ie:

barbie (barbecue),
mozzie (mosquito).

Received Australian Example

/æ/ /e/ bad /bed/
eɪ/ /æɪ/ say /sæɪ/
/ɪeaə/ /i:/ near /ni:/
/eə/ /e:/ hair /he:/

South African Accent:

Try to guess the accent
a) Scottish accent
b) Received pronuntation
c) South African accent

Audio 2:
a) Irish accent
b) Welsh accent
c) American accent

Audio 3:

a) Scottish Accent
b) Australian Accent
c) Corkney Accent

Audio 4:

a) American accent
b) Irish accent
c) Scottish accent

Scottish Gaelic

Celtic language native to Scotland.
Developed out of Middle Irish, and thus descends ultimately from Old Irish.
Scottish Gaelic is not an official language of the European Union, not of the United Kingdom.
It is classed as an autochthonous language under the European Charter for Regional
or Minority Languages,
which the British government has ratified.

Scottish Gaelic

Aside from Scottish Gaelic the language may also be referred to simply as Gaelic.
Outside of Ireland and Great Britain, "Gaelic" may confusingly refer to the Irish language.
Scottish Gaelic should not be confused with Scots, which refers to the English-derived language varieties which had come to be spoken in most of the Lowlands of Scotland by the early modern era.
Scottish Gaelic is spoken by about 60,000 people in Scotland (Alba), mainly in the Highlands (a' Ghaidhealtachd) and in the Western Isles (Na h-Eileanan an Iar), but also in Glasgow (Glaschu), Edinburgh (Dùn Eideann) and Inverness (Inbhir Nis).
There are also small Gaelic-speaking communities in Canada, particularly in Nova Scotia (Alba Nuadh) and on Cape Breton Island (Eilean Cheap Breatainn). Other speakers can be found in Australia (Astràilia), New Zealand (Sealainn Nuadh) and the USA (Na Stàitean Aonaichte).
Scottish Gaelic is written with just 18 letters each
of which is named after a tree or shrub.
The consonants all have more than one pronunciation
depending on their position in a word and which
vowels precede or follow them.

Scottish English

It refers to the varieties of English spoken in Scotland.
It may or may not be considered distinct from the Scots language.
It is not the same as Scottish Gaelic, which is a Celtic language.
The main, formal variety is called Scottish Standard English or
Standard Scottish English, often abbreviated to SSE.

Scottish English results from language contact between Scots
and the Standard English of England after the 17th century.
The resulting shifts to English usage by Scots-speakers
resulted in many phonological compromises and lexical transfers,
often mistaken for mergers by linguists unfamiliar
with the history of Scottish English.

Scottish English
Highland English is slightly different from the variety
spoken in the Lowlands in that it is more phonologically, grammatically, and lexically influenced by a Gaelic substratum.
Similarly the English spoken in the North-East of Scotland tends to
follow the phonology and grammar of Doric.

Is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots)
It is sometimes called Lowland Scots to distinguish it from Scottish Gaelic.
Scots is generally regarded as one of the ancient varieties of English, yet it has its own distinct dialects.
Scots is sometimes treated as a distinct Germanic language, in the way Norwegian is closely linked to, yet distinct from, Danish.

Scots Language

The UK government accepts Scots as a regional language
under the European Charter for Regional or Minority
Languages, and the Scottish Executive recognises and
respects Scots (in all its forms) as a distinct language,
and does not consider the use of Scots to be an indication
of poor competence in English.

Scots Language

At Scotsman, the length of the vowels is conditioned by the Act Aitken.
The words those are only a bit different from the English in pronunciation written as in English. Other words are spelled the same but have a different pronunciation.
aunt, swap, want and wash pronounced with / a /.
bull (bull or steer), full (complete) and pull with / ʌ /.
bind (tie), find and wind (wind up) with / ɪ /.

Full transcript