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Solid Waste Management in Malaysia

Solid Waste Management in Malaysia

Zaipul Anwar

on 13 May 2015

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Transcript of Solid Waste Management in Malaysia

Solid Waste Management in Malaysia
Status, Challenges and Future Strategies
Introduction & History
Managing trash/waste is
major challenge
in urban areas particularly in rapidly growing country like Malaysia [1]
Lack of an effective and efficient solid waste management system has had a negative impact on the environment.
Malaysia, with a population of over 29 million in
2012 generates approximately
25,000 metric
of domestic waste per day. [1]
In Average:
1 Malaysian = 0.85 - 1.5 kg/person/day
Currently, the main approach being employed to manage wastes is the
approach but due to rapid development and the lack of space for new landfills,
authorities in most major cities in Malaysia are looking at other waste management approaches.

National Solid Waste Management Department
has been set up under the Ministry of Housing and Local Government [12]. A new bill has been gazetted to implement the new
Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management Corporation Act 2007 (SWPCMC Act 2007).
Through the SWPCMC Act 2007 the Federal Government of Malaysia will be taking over the responsibility of SWM from state local authorities (LA) and
privatised them to concession companies.

To provide an analysis of the
future strategies
to issues related to Solid Waste Management in Malaysia.

Most of us don't think so much about trash. Isn't it?

Especially if we've got someone else to pick up our trash.
Here are some important statistics:-
In Malaysia, only
of municipal waste is
Only about
or chemically treated.
The rest
is dumped into
to decompose or not to decompose.

- Data acquired from DOE of Malaysia
Some material like plastics and metal may take a thousand years to decompose plus they emit harmful green house gas (GHG) such as methane, carbon dioxide & nitrous oxide.
Collection and transportation
Among the
25,000 metric tonnes
of waste generated daily as mentioned above, 45% are organic waste (food waste), 24% are plastics, 7% paper, 6% metal and 18% are glass and others as shown in Table 1.
The wastes generated are then disposed off at
165 disposal sites
in the country which cater up to
95% of Malaysian waste
. Of these, only 8 are sanitary landfills while the rest are open dumps. 11 more sanitary landfills are under various stages of implementation and construction. However, about
80% of these dumps have almost reached full capacity
and are expected to be shut down over the next few years [1].
Recovery, treatment and disposal
165 disposal sites that cater 95% of waste.
85% reached full capacity
Due to increasing lack of space for new landfills, authorities in major cities in
Malaysia are studying other waste management approaches
. Among them is an approach to move away from unsanitary landfills due to its capability to produce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions such as methane and carbon dioxide.
Location of waste disposal sites in Peninsular Malaysia
. The data on the map above was collected from Ministry of Housing and Local Government Malaysia by personal communication. Source: (Bin-Hasnan, M-Z., Personal Communication, April 14, 2010)
& History

GHG contribute to:-
Despite being an attractive technological option for waste management, this type of combustion-based processes for municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment are a subject of intense debate around the world. [5]
In the absence of effective controls, harmful pollutants such as dioxins
may be emitted into the air, land and water which may influence human health and environment.
According to Malaysia's current Director General of National Solid Waste Management Department,
40% - 80% of LA expenditure are on managing solid waste and public cleansing

The cost of SWM services per premise is around RM15.00 and the privatisation of the SWM had cost the Malaysian Government more than RM300 million.

Capital expenditure (Capex) for a new landfill will be more than RM30 million
in average whereas the operating expenditure (Opex) of a landfill is
around RM30.00 - RM40.00/tonne in average
High Cost
Public awareness and enforcement
The government has launched several recycling campaigns in 2000s to involve the participation of NGOs and community groups as well as the launch of an
extensive public education and publicity campaign
After more than two years of recycling campaigns, only
2% of waste is recycled while it will takes only 9.5 days to fill the Petronas Twin Towers
with garbage [8]
2% only!
9.5 days
40% - 80% LA expenditure on SWM
Capex for landfill = RM30 mil
Recycling Program
summary / Fast Facts
In conclusion, Malaysia’s solid waste management strategies had to a
certain degree been able to improved the environmental quality
, public health, and socio-economic development as detailed in the country’s Vision 2020
However, a
fundamental requirement for more efforts to increase effectiveness and efficiency in achieving the set objectives
on solid waste management with an integrated and sustainable perspective is absolutely a necessity by the local, state, and federal governments for a clean, green, and beautiful Malaysia for all to cherish in the future.
Future Strategies
After knowing all the facts just now, so how should we go about in managing the future of waste in Malaysia?

Or what is better known as
One of the best approach as what has become
the trend now is to:-
The Linear Production-Consumption-Disposal System: An Outdated 20th Century Approach
Zero Waste System: Meeting the Needs of the 21st Century and Beyond
Lack of
regulations and guidelines that are sustainable
are one of the most serious problems that hinder the success of a recycling programme in Malaysia.

As an example, the programmes in
Japan are carried out both through private and public systems
, recycling is carried out through retailers’ trade-in, barter system activities and community- based systems.
While Germany has in place regulations on deposit system
, waste disposal tax and amount of waste to be utilised in production [9].

Solid waste recycling in Malaysia has a long way to go.
Effort to reduce waste through waste minimisation or recycling should be planned properly and this does not mean that we have to switch to capital-intensive and sophisticated systems because they are not necessarily more effective and efficient.
So do Malaysia should go
about in managing waste in
the future?
What is Zero Trash/Waste?
Zero waste is a philosophy that encourages the redesign of resource life cycles so that all products are reused. No trash is sent to landfills and incinerators.
Source: Zero Waste International Alliance (zwia.org).
Conventional System vs Zero Waste System
Alternative Technology (Various Kind)
Plasma gasification is a process which
converts organic matter into synthesis gas, electricity, and slag using plasma
. A plasma torch powered by an electric arc is used to ionize gas and catalyze organic matter into synthesis gas and solid waste (glass slag). It is used commercially as a form of waste treatment and has been tested for the gasification of biomass and solid hydrocarbons, such as coal, oil sands, and oil shale.

The development of pyrolysis and gasification technologies has been
successfully deployed
in a large scale plants in Europe, North America and Japan [10]. Among the applications used is
to treat hazardous waste such as radioactive waste
. With this technology than
Lynas Advanced Materials Plant (LAMP)
that produce Thorium (radioactive waste) will not become a political issue at all?

In Malaysia, solid waste analysis and data for major towns and cities
basically have not been well documented

Successful waste management in any given country
depends on reliable information about quantities, types, and the amount
of material that can be captured and expected to envisage proper decision making in the future. [7]
Decision Support System
Waste to Energy Process in PEM
Plasma Waste Treatment Technology
(One of the proposed system to be used)
Source: Kalinenko, R. A.; Kuznetsov, A. P.; Levitsky, A. A.; Messerle, V. E.; Mirokhin, Z. B.; Polak; Sakipov, L. S.; Ustimenko, A. B. (1993). "Pulverized coal plasma gasification". Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing 13 (1): 141–167. doi:10.1007/BF01447176. (subscription required). Retrieved 2012-03-08.
[1] Nadzri, Yahaya. "The Way Forward: Solid Waste Managment in Malaysia." 10th Annual Waste Management Conference & Exhibition, Malaysia, p.10, 19 July, 2013.

[2] Budhiarta, I., Siwar, C., & Basri, H. (2011). Current status of municipal solid waste generation in Malaysia. International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, 2(2), 16–21.

[3] N. Yahaya and I. Larsen, “Federalising Solid Waste Management in Peninsular Malaysia,” in Proceeding of International Solid Waste Association (ISWA) World Congress, Singapore, 2008.

[4] “World Development Indicators | The World Bank.” [Online]. Available: http://wdi.worldbank.org/table/3.9. [Accessed: 04- Aug-2013].

[5] C. Achillas, C. Vlachokostas, N. Moussiopoulos, G. Banias, G. Kafetzopoulos, and A. Karagiannidis, “Social acceptance for the development of a waste-to-energy plant in an urban area,” Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 55, no. 9– 10, pp. 857–863, Jul. 2011.

[6] V. Misra and S. D. Pandey, “Hazardous waste, impact on health and environment for development of better waste management strategies in future in India,” Environment international, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 417–431, 2005.

[7] D. Badgie, M. A. Samah, L. A. Manaf, and A. B. Muda, “Assessment of municipal solid waste composition in Malaysia: Management, practice and challenges,” Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 539–547, 2012.
[8] A. Omran, A. Mahmood, H. Abdul Aziz, and G. M. Robinson, “Investigating households attitude toward recycling of solid waste in Malaysia: a case study,” International journal of environmental research, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 275–288, 2009.

[9] N. Hassan, T. L. Chong, M. Rahman, and M. Awang, “Recycling model in developing countries: an illustration for Malaysia,” in Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing, 2001. Proceedings EcoDesign 2001: Second International Symposium on, 2001, pp. 494–498.

[10] E. Gomez, D. A. Rani, C. R. Cheeseman, D. Deegan, M. Wise, and A. R. Boccaccini, “Thermal plasma technology for the treatment of wastes: A critical review,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 161, no. 2, pp. 614–626, 2009.

[11]Unit, Economic Planning. "Eighth Malaysia Plan 2001- 2005." Economic Planning Unit Malaysia (2001).

[12]Unit, Economic Planning. "The 9th Malaysia plan: 2006- 2010." Putra Jaya, Malaysia: Prime Minister’s Department (2006).

[13]L. A. Manaf, M. A. A. Samah, and N. I. M. Zukki, “Municipal solid waste management in Malaysia: Practices and challenges,” Waste Management, vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 2902–2906, 2009.
Presentation can be downloaded from:

Apple pledged to produce products that are fully recyclable & environmental friendly
Plasma Enhanced Melter (PEM)
at InEnTec Richland WA
Thank You
Your Attention.
Don't Forget To:

According to statistics produced by World Bank, in 2010 Malaysia produce
42.2% more Methane, 250.5% more carbon dioxide, 10.4% more Nitrous Oxide and 99.9% other type of GHG than previous years
from 1990 - 2010 as shown in Table 2 [4]
Approach to Zero Waste System
Zaipul Anwar
, Wan Md Syukri, Ahmad Rahman, Nooh Abu Bakar
MJIIT UTM, Kuala Lumpur
MJJIT - JUC International Symposium 2013 (MJJIS 2013)
6-8 November, 2013, Tokai University, Hiratsuka, Japan

Waste bin in Tokai University
Full transcript