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Types of plants and structure

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by

Cherry Sinthong

on 15 November 2013

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Transcript of Types of plants and structure

Leaves Modification
- Tendrils
- Reproductive leaves
- Bracts or floral leaves
- Spines
Types of Plants and Structure
Stem Modification
Normally stem grow above the soil surface. In some plants the stem is modified to perform special task in surviving different condition and even act as food storage.
Seedless Vascular Plants
Seeded Vascular Plants
- most living plants are in this group
- successful on land and water environment
- great in going against gravity
- have extensive vascular tissue and include some of the world's largest organisms
- seed contain an embryo, a supply of nutrients and a protective outer coat
- 2 types: Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
Root Modification
Prop root
thick adventitious roots that grow from the lower part of the stem and brace to plant
Buttress Roots
large root, develop near bottom of the trees to provide stability
Pneumatophores
(air root)
plants in wet places, the roots will extend above the soil and water surface and facilitate oxygen uptake
Storage Root
Angiosperms
have seed that develop within a protective structure
(flowering plants, with fruit cover the seed)
2 types: Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons
Gymnosperms
have seeds that do not develop within an enclosed structure (seed, no flower)
reduce water loss, may be associated with modified stems that carry out photosynthesis
Bract or Floral Leaves
colored modified leaves that surround flowers and attract insects for pollination
Reproductive Leaves
produce tiny plants along the leaf margins that fall to the ground and take root in soil
Tubers
horizontally growing stems below ground that are modified as carbohydrate, storage structure
Rhizomes
horizontally stems that grow just below the surface to allow plant spreading
Stolons
horizontally stems growing above ground that allow a plant to produce asexually
structures that coil around object to aid in support and climbing
Bulbs
vertical, underground stems consisting of bases of leaves that store food
3 Major Groups of Land Plants
Non-Vascular land Plants
Seedless Vascular Plants
Seeded Vascular Plants
Non-Vascular Land Plants
-found in moist environment
-no conducting tissue
-usually small and grow close to ground
-do diffusion and osmosis for taking essential materials
-grouped together as Bryophytes
Moss is one of the example
- well- developed vascular tissue
- do not produce seed or flower
- relatively small
- need moist environment
plants such as fern have sorus underside of the leaves
Sorus is a cluster of sporangia.
Monocotyledons
- parallel venation in leaves
- 3 flowers parts (multiple of 3)
- root system mainly fibrous
- seeds contain only one cotyledon
- pollen grain with one opening
- vascular bundles arranged throughout the stem
Dicotyledon
- net-like venation pattern in leaves
- 4 or 5 flowers parts( multiples of 4 or 5)
- seed contain 2 cotyledons
- vascular bundles arranged as a ring in the stem
- root system, taproot
- pollen grain with 3 opening
Plants Organ Modification
an adaptation of plant to certain condition
Leaves Modification
Stem Modification
Root Modification
Tendrils
Spines
Normal leaf is thin and green and do photosynthesis. But in some plants, special tasks needed to be perform by leaves, which become modified
- Bulbs
- Tubers
- Rhizomes
- Stolons
Root modified to suit their in surrounding, and to be more efficient in absorption of essential nutrients
specialized cells within the root store large quantities of carbohydrates and water
By: Cherry Singthong
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