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Transcript of The Crusades
1st and 2nd Crusades
3rd and 4th Crusades
The End of the Crusades
History of Crusades
5th and 6th Crusades
7th and 8th Crusades
The 5th Crusade took place during 1217 and 1221
The Christian city of Damietta was forced to surrender, and Christian troops were defeated on their way to Cairo
The 6th Crusade took place during 1228 and 1229 and it was headed by Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen
He negotiated a 10 year truce
This truce included that the cities of Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and Lydda be returned to the Christians.
The truce fell apart, and Jerusalem was retaken by Muslims in 1244
The 3rd Crusade lasted from 1189 until 1192.
The Crusaders responded to the Palestinian defeat in Galilee.
During this, Jerusalem was lost to Saladin, an enemy of the Crusaders.
Frederick I Barbarossa, Philip II Augustus of France, and Richard I of England led this Crusade.
The goal of the 3rd Crusade was to regain Jerusalem.
The Crusade ended when Frederick drowned during a march and the effort of the Crusade fell apart due to the death of one of their leaders.
The 4th crusade lasted from 1202 until 1204.
Pope Innocent III made the organization of the crusades his main focus during his papacy.
The Crusaders attacked the city of Zara then they sailed to Constantinople.
Capturing Constantinople was the main goal of the 4th Crusade.
The crusaders laid siege to Constantinople, and eventually stole the relics, art, and gold of Byzantium
Later, Constantinople was recaptured by the Byzantines.
Lasted from 1096-1099
Pope Urban II initiated the first Crusade.
He presented the idea at the Council of Clermont which was an assembly of 200 bishops in southern France.
The goal of the 1st crusade was to
reunify the Christians
have control over Christians three holiest cities, Rome, Constantinople, and Jerusalem.
The First Crusade
There were four different Crusade groups each led by a different person.
Godfrey of Bouillon
Raymond of Saint-Gilles (led the largest group)
Robert II of Jerusalem
4,000 knights and 25,000 infantry passed through Constantinople and surrounded the Byzantine Empire
After three years of battling, the crusaders obtained their goals and pushed the Turks back to take over Jerusalem.
The First Crusade
After taking over Jerusalem, the Crusaders found it difficult to live there.
They were surrounded by their enemies and the European allies were far away and would not be able to support the Crusaders if they were attacked
A Shepard boy, Stephan claimed to have been visited by Jesus.
He called for a new crusade, fought by children.
The pope ordered the children to return home, but their army kept growing larger.
Many of the children were killed, sold into slavery, or died of diseases before even reaching their destination.
The 7th Crusade took place from1248- 1254
Muslims regained Jerusalem
Known as the end of the crusading movement because the people didn't believe that a crusade could be an expression of God's will
King Louis of France took 15 thousand men and attacked Egypt
The 8th crusade took place from 1270- 1272.
An expedition against the sultan of Tunis
King died in North Africa
Muslims succeeded in buying off the crusaders
The Crusaders honored the Church but kept their independence from the papacy. They were in awe of the Church's power and authority.
The 2nd crusade took place from 1147- 1149
Bernard of Clairvaux, Louis VII of France, and Cornrad III of Germany led separate Armies through Asia Minor
Losses disheartened the soldiers.
The remaining crusaders joined with the Palestinian knights to defeat Damascus, which was unsuccessful
The failures of the last four Crusades caused people to doubt God's will
The Crusades imposed burdens on the clergy and laity that the papacy could not support
On the other hand, the Crusades spread Christianity and it continued to grow
How did the Crusades help end the Middle Ages?
The Crusades furthered the growth of a money economy, banking, and a new method of taxation.
The Crusades exposed the soldiers to new lands, which led to an interest in learning about new things and the start of the Renaissance Era.
How are the Crusades Still Being Fought Today?
The Crusades led to other "holy wars" such as the muslim Jihads, and the Turkish wars during the Ottoman expansion.
Some Muslims, such as the Taliban, still believe in Jihad, and bring forth terrorist attacks.
The crusades brought very few long-lasting political changes.
The Muslims saw the Crusades as an opening for jihad, or Holy Wars, and began using jihad as a way to spread their religion and government.
The crusades started when the Byzantine emperor asked for help against the Muslim Seljuk Turks who had taken control of Asia Minor.
Artist's Rendition of the Third Crusade
Crusades: Peter the Hermit leading the First Crusade. Photograph.Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Web. 8 Apr. 2014.
Froehlich, Karlfried. "Crusades: Christian Perspective." World Religions. New York: Macmillan Library Reference USA, 1987. Macmillan Compendium. World History in Context. Web. 4 Apr. 2014.
Fry, George. "Pope Urban II Calls the First Crusade." Salem History. Salem Press, n.d. Web. 7 Apr. 2014. <http://history.salempress.com/doi/full/10.3331/GEMA_1621045022?prevSearch=First%2BCrusade&searchHistoryKey=&queryHash=c1512383b8731302d9d64a900067aef2>.
Jegen, Mary Evelyn. "Failure of the Seventh Crusade." Great Events from History: The Middle Ages, 477-1453. Ed. A. Pavlac Brian. 2 vols. Salem Press, 2004. Salem History Web. 03 Apr. 2014
Middle Ages. New York: Viking Penguin, 1999. Print.
Orthodox and Roman Catholic Christianity. Safari Monatage. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2014. <http://media.notredameprep.com/SAFARI/montage/play.php?keyindex=33232>.
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