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Transcript of Farming
The activity or business of growing crops and raising livestock. A tract of land cultivated for the purpose of agricultural production.
Farming Location in Canada
Most of Canada's farmland is on the Southern part of Canada. This includes the southern parts of British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Canada's largest farming region is the Great Lakes - St. Lawrence Lowlands where the amount of Growing Degree-Days (GDDs) above 6○C are more than 1925 days. This is here in Ontario and this is where most of farming in Canada is done. The other Southern regions in Canada (as mentioned earlier) that have GDDs above 6○C usually have more than 1375 growing days. The rest of Canada has growing days all less than 1375 days.
Temperature is the most important factor when it comes to the location of farming. If the temperature stays warm most of the year and it gets warm in the summer, lots of farming can be done (i.e. Great Lakes - St. Lawrence Lowlands region). As you go more North on the map of Canada, the growing days start to decrease. This is because in those regions, the temperature tends to stay cool most of the year and that makes farming really unlikely to happen.
Benefits and Uses of Farming
1. The Promotion of Biodiversity
Organic methods such as rotating crops to build soil fertility and naturally raising animals helps to increase biodiversity. Organic farms are havens to wildlife, which leads to ecosystems being improved as well.
2. The Reduction of Farm Pollution
Conventional farms create their own kind of pollution, in the form of chemical pesticides and synthetic fertilizers run-off, which harms areas around them. With these chemicals removed from the equation, organic farming is far more beneficial and less impactful on our environment.
Renewable or Non-Renewable
Both farming and renewable resources are a winning combination. Farmers produce renewable energy by growing resources, that can replace non-renewable resources. For example, farmers grow corn to make ethanol, which is used extensively as:
- a solvent in the manufacture of varnishes and perfumes.
- a preservative for biological specimens.
- a disinfectant and in tinctures (e.g., tincture of iodine)
- as a fuel and gasoline additive.
3. Better-Tasting Food
Organic food actually can taste better than its conventionally farm-raised counterpart. One scientific reason for this is that some organic products produce have lower nitrate contents than its non-organic version. This leads to sweeter tasting fruits that also have been shown to contain higher levels of antioxidants.
4. Better Soil
It is estimated that conventional farming’s dependency on chemical fertilizers destroys topsoil, which generates a $40 billion annual loss. If organic methods were used, instead of chemical fertilizers and ammonia, we would instead see an increase in the healthiness of this topsoil, which in turn would produce fruit and vegetables higher in minerals and micro nutrients.
5. Job Creation
The most recent statistics from the Organic Farming Research Foundation indicate that there are more than 10,000 certified organic producers in the United States, compared to the nearly 2 million conventional farms. However, the organic farms are more profitable , even though they often require more employees. It’s not difficult to equate the economic benefit and job creation that a shift to organic farming would create.
6. Assisting the Fight against Climate Change
Because organic farming uses less chemical fertilizers and pesticides, it reduces nonrenewable energy use. It takes considerable amounts of fossil fuel to create the synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, which is used in conventional farming. What’s more is that organic farming increases the amount of carbon returned to the soil, which lowers the impact on the greenhouse effect, and global warming.
7. Safer Water
The runoff of chemicals from conventional farming seeps into groundwater supplies, and groundwater pollution has become a serious issue. Soil itself is a natural water filter. Organic farming enriches the soil, which not only removes the risk of groundwater pollution but can also act as a way to rehabilitate soil in areas where damage to water supplies has already occurred.
It is said that every culture shares one thing in common: Food. It is a universal celebration. Organic farming celebrates healthfulness and biodiversity. It removes damaging chemical toxins from our environment and our food. That is something to promote and foster!
Preserving of the Culture of Agriculture
- Comparative pricing of different crops. For some crops government releases prices of the crop at the time of seeding.
- Market demand and sale potential of the crop.
- Budget required for the cultivation of each crop.
- Feasibility of the crop considering climate and quality of land.
- Crop productivity compared with other alternatives.
2. Land Preparation
- Effects of any disease from the previous cultivation and steps needed to minimize this impact.
- Fertilizers needed to bring land to its normal fertility depending upon the previous crops and fertilizer used.
- Layout and design of the field with respect to crop for efficient irrigation.
- Latest techniques for leveling the fields and their cost.
3. Seed Selection
- Price and quantity needed per acre
- Average yield and sprout to sown ratio.
- Suitability to particular area and climate.
- Water requirement.
- Resistance to diseases.
- Location of distribution offices for the seed.
4. Seed Sowing
- Appropriate time to sow the seed.
- Optimal weather conditions at sowing time.
- Best method for the sowing of seeds.
-Seed sowing depth.
- Critical time for irrigation.
- Amount of water to be given to the plants.
- Frequency of irrigation.
6. Crop Growth
- Number of plants per unit of area. Farmers must reduce density for healthy growth of plants.
- Average growth rate of the crop in normal conditions.
- Comparison of crop growth rate, leaf size, crop color etc. with expected growth for given conditions and input.
- Interventions needed to maintain expected growth.
- Frequency, quantity and method for fertilization.
- Proper time, frequency and method for plowing and weeding
- Expected pest and virus attacks, symptoms of such attacks, precautionary measure that can be taken in advance to avoid these attacks, like the use of pesticides.
- Quantity of pesticide to be used per acre, most effective method for pesticide spray, avoid health issues related to pesticide spray.
- Proper time and method for harvesting.
- Comparative market rates.
- Proper crop storage.
- Cost of transportation.
Moisture is also a factor. This solely relies on the availability of water. If a place is near water and gets a lot if precipitation, then you have good moisture. Good moisture is a influential factor in plant growth.
Land quality is another factor. If the soil is poor, then farming does not occur in those regions. For example, the Canadian Shield has some parts of it located in southern parts of Canada but farming doesn’t happen at a significant rate because soil is really old and poor.
1. Supplying the growing global demand from developing economies and world population growth are two of them.
The world population is constantly increasing and there is a demand for food from everyone. Developing countries have been reaching wealth very quickly and that is increasing the demand of farming. This puts farmers in a tough situation and deliver the demand.
2. Availability and price of land
The world has certain amount of space, the land is not increasing but the demand is. This is causing problems. The price of land is a deciding factor because some farmers cannot purchase expensive land and the economy is constantly increasing in the world and that’s a pretty big issue
3. Impact of global trade policies and the supply and demand
This is a smaller issue. This has to deal with the new food policies that are consistently changing. This means that some food that farmers have finished growing cannot be traded or sold because of the changing policies. This leads to having huge amounts of waste of good eatable food.
4. Use of bio-based fuels
Use of bio-based fuels is an issue because people are using tons and tons of crops to fuel their cars. This means that they are burning huge amounts of crops which can feed families in poverty.
A farmer performs following eight major steps from crop selection to harvesting:
1. Crop Selection 2. Land Preparation
3. Seed Selection 4. Seed Sowing
5. Irrigation 6. Crop Growth
7. Fertilizing 8. Harvesting
1. Supplying the growing global demand from developing economies and world population growth
There are a few possible solutions to these issues. To supply the growing global demand from developing economies, there should be additional farming land granted to the farmers. This allows the farmers to be under less pressure. The developing economies should also start building a stronger farming industry which would make them less reliant on other regions. There is no clear answer to solving the world population growth.
2. Availability and price of land
The farmers should try to make the most out of the land that is given to them. That becomes really difficult when the demand is constantly increasing. That means more land should be granted to the farmers. The price of land is constantly increasing due to the economy and that makes it very difficult for farmers to purchase new land to supply the huge demands. The government should keep the land prices of farms low so it is easier for the farmers to buy the land and can allow the farmers to easily supply the demand.
3. Impact of global trade policies on food security
This is an issue that can easily be resolved. If the farmers are warned in a constant cycle that policies are being changed, they will stop farming food that the policies don’t accept. If the farmers have already farmed this food, then they can feed people in poverty and people in need.
4. Use of bio-based fuels
The use of bio-fueled fuels should be banned. This way bio-based fuels will be permanently stopped. People should also start to make more developed hybrid cars. People should also research and use new technologies to use resources like solar energy.
1. Crop Selection
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