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323-Oceans in Crisis
Transcript of 323-Oceans in Crisis
Shannon Gibson, Ph.D.
University of Southern California
Fisheries and Fishing
- Invasive species
- Algal blooms or “red tides”
- Coral reef loss
- Loss of mangroves
How bad is overexploitation?
Debates over Ocean Preservation
Other Concerns for the Oceans
Global Oceans Governance
The International Whaling Debate
Law of the Sea
history: 3-mile limit & "cod wars"
1982 UNCLOS codifies 200-mile limit (EEZ)
also establishes rules for other parts of the sea
precautionary approach & capability approach
lacking some major members
International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling
Plight of the Oceans
What are the drivers?
Current Event: South China Sea Dispute
Discussion: What norms or discourses are being invoked in this presentation of the issue? What what might be some countervailing norms/discourses that critics of this incident would utilize?
effect on food chain
ocean floor damage
small scale fishers
Why is it important?
30% of maritime trade
Natural gas & oil
China's historical 9-dash claim
Clashes with UNCLOS and EEZ's of the Philippines, Vietnam, Malaysia, Brunei, Tawain
Philippines takes China to the UN Permanent Court of Arbitration in 2013 for violating sovereignty under UNCLOS
is it really that bad?
is it human caused?
should we restrict ocean-floor trawling?
is ecosystem-based management useful?
do we focus on mitigation or adaptation?
History of Whaling
Begins in first few centuries of A.D.
Japan, Norway, Basque
then Dutch, British and Americans
Traditional hunting: slower species, small boats, hand-thrown harpoons
Sea Shepherd Conservation Society (SSCS)
a non-profit marine preservation organization
founded by Paul Watson, a founding member and defector of Greenpeace
their campaigns have been chronicled since 2008 on Animal Planet's "Whale Wars"
utilizes direct action tactics
disabling ships (i.e., prop fouling)
blocking factory ship
supported by law
begins late 1800s
invention of exploding harpoon and harpoon gun
steam-driven vessels & factory shops
now can catch faster species (blue, fin, Sei, Minke)
over-fishing is rampant
International Whaling Commission (1946)
regulatory body created by Convention
open to whaling & non-whaling states
originally set quotes, but as decline set it...
IWC Moratorium (1982)
passed by 3/4 majority
set a 10-year (yet indefinite) moratorium on commercial whaling
small-scale subsistence whaling
Anti-Whaling Movement vs. the Pro-Whaling (Anti-Anti) Whaling Movement
Actors: The U.S., Australia, other Western countries, Greenpeace, Sea Shepherd Conservation Society (SSCS)
eco-centric / Deep Ecology
whales as "charismatic megafauna"
fighting barbarism / uncivilized acts
"global" norms / taboos
If the oceans die, we all die.
Actors: Japan and others (domestically is a very elite movement)
national identity: "proud whaling nation"
historical legacy / tradition
focus on the scientific facts which say populations are increasing
defending against Western moral imposition
its is NOT an expensive delicacy
research is legal, justified and in the name of conservation
whales-as-fish / pest
Why is this so protracted?
How to movements mobilize differing frames?
Constructivist (framing) analysis
focus on NGOs
Pro-Whaling / Anti-Anti-Whaling Movement
Do you think cultural heritage provides a sound defense for Japanese whaling? (try to think of countervailing examples)
What about scientific research?
Do you believe their argument of support from international charters justifies their actions?
Do you see them as pirates/eco-terrorists or defenders/eco-warriors?