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Copy of Green Infrastructure - Policy in Action
Transcript of Copy of Green Infrastructure - Policy in Action
Supporting text will be in separate document
Trial asap (Townhill)
Launch as non-mandatory in 2012 (in sustainability checklist) Green Space Factor Green Infrastructure
-Policy in Action Berlin
Biotope •The CCAP area has been taken and using MasterMap – GSF scored (note water also scores high) Mersey
Forest Malmo why is G.I.
important? lindsay mcculloch - planning ecologist
melanie robertson - sustainable development officer email@example.com what is the
Green Space Factor? a brief history case study “the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems.”
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005 Put simply:
It is the variety of life. Biodiversity is: Ecosystems An ecosystem can be defined as:
‘‘a set of interacting species and their local, non-biological environment functioning together to sustain life’’ Urban areas can be considered as one single ecosystem
or as a series of individual ecosystems, e.g. parks and lakes Ecosystems do not have neat edges Urban ecosystems are often described as
Green Infrastructure Ecosystem Services Ecosystem Services are the benefits people obtain from the natural environment Biodiversity is the foundation of ecosystem services to which human well-being is intimately linked. Services provided by ecosystems Provisioning - timber, food, clean air
Regulating - climate, flooding
Cultural - health, recreation and tourism
Supporting - soil formation, water cycling Social and economic prosperity Ecosystem Services in Urban Areas The following ecosystem services can be found in urban areas:
Air quality management – street trees and woodlands
Temperature regulation –trees, shrubs and woodlands
Noise reduction – tree and shrub belts
Water management – trees, shrubs, grasslands and wetlands
Recreational/health – parks, particularly ones with good levels of biodiversity
Community cohesion/crime reduction – parks, landscaped areas Green Networks To be resilient in the face of increasing human pressure and a changing environment, ecosystems need to be connected.
In urban areas parks can be considered to be core areas with connections provided by street trees, road verges, domestic gardens and green roofs. Core Strategy (2010) City Centre Action Plan Lego Workshop An amalgamation of the Berlin, Northwest and Malmo methods
The GSF to be used as a tool in development planning
GSF scores used as a basis upon which targets for maintenance or improvements in green infrastructure could be set
Helps identify potential for improvement of the GSF through identifying surfaces available for green walls and green roofs
Provides a simple numerical output. Indicates ecological performance and potential economic value. Could help build an economic case for ecological improvement within the city. Southampton’s Approach A method similar to Berlin for calculating a BAF
Generates a score for a primary layer (from 0 to 1), and then applies a simple vegetation score if shrubs, hedges or trees are present
E.g. if a surface is regarded as 100% available as a potential vegetated surface it will be assigned a score of 1. If the surface is 100% covered by tree canopy then it will be assigned an additional score of 0.4. If it is only covered with grass it will remain with a score of 1. More detailed information on surface type.
Vegetation type is factored in to some extent
Buildings are recorded which is useful as it indicates space that could potentially be covered with green roof in the future. Northwest Method A conceptual tool for assigning value to elements of the urban environment in terms of the ecosystem services they provide.
These services could include:
Air quality improvement (dust binding)
Aesthetics The GSF can serve as a tool upon which to set targets and monitor progress, support decision making and set standards for new development.
There are variations of the approach taken to calculating GSFs. The Green Space Factor (GSF) GIS tool to calculate the GSF in Southampton City
29 data layers within MapInfo from a combination of OS MasterMap data and data on Open Spaces generated and owned by SCC
Create a total of 127 different surface types
Some Initial Results
Southampton City GSF = 0.38
City Centre GSF = 0.16
Southampton Common = 0.79 MapInfo A more rigorous approach to determining true value of different surface and vegetation type combinations.
A new scoring system
Extensive list of different surface and the vegetation types.
Scoring of each possible surface and vegetation combination.
Overall GSF is calculated as average or weighted average, generating a score from 0 to 1 for each surface and vegetation type combination.
The GSF is scored from 0 to 1, where impermeable surfaces are scored as 0 and surfaces with highest green space factor are scored 1. First implementation of the idea
Concept called a Biotope Area Factor (BAF)
This is a value assigned to an area that indicates the proportion of the area that can be considered ecologically effective
Factors between 0 and 1 are assigned to different surface types as a representation of their ecological effectiveness
1 represents total ecological effectiveness and 0 indicates no ecological value These factors are then multiplied by the area of each surface type and divided by the total study area, giving a mean BAF
No score is directly applied to vegetation type
Scores relate to the surface type not the vegetation type
The BAF is a measure of the availability of a surface in terms of its potential for vegetation rather than the actual vegetated state of an area. Berlin Method Tree Green Roof Building- 6 floors Southampton’s Future Southampton’s Green Grid
Connecting green infrastructure in urban areas through the use of street trees, road verges and new open spaces
Policy whereby it is mandatory to include green infrastructure with new developments to achieve a GSF score of ….. Or increase the GSF score of the site by …… A city in which green infrastructure planning tools have been successfully used in new developments
The GSF tool was successfully used to “secure a certain amount of green cover in every building lot, and to minimise the degree of sealed or paved surfaces in the development” (GRaBS, 2011).
The development was requested to have a final Green Space Factor of 0.5
A very similar approach has been developed by Southampton City Council Malmo, Sweden lego workshop (Moll and Petit, 1994). One raised circle within a Lego brick = 1m2
Area of site = 1024 m2 (32x32m)
50% of existing site is greenfield with a GSF = 1
50% of existing site is non-permeable surface GSF = 0
Therefore GSF for whole of existing site = 0.5
Aim to improve score. Prize for highest score within budget and requirements! Budget = £2,000,000
Building ≥ 2,500m2 (including all floors)
Parking Space ≥ 100m2
Amenity Space ≥ 100m2
Development ≤ 6 floors high (6 layers of bricks)
Start with the outline footprint of the building + build up floors at the corners
Intensive green roof can be used as amenity space.
Low story buildings with a larger footprint are less expensive to build but may have more space for a greenroof.
High story buildings with a small footprint are more expensive to build but take up less of the existing greenfield site + free more space for amenity + access.
A 3 storey building of 29x29m has 2523m2 of floorspace
A 5 storey building of 23x23m has 2645m2 of floorspace Hints Development Requirements Non-permeable driveway/parking surface (Meant to be black!) Open water Tree Greenfield Green Wall Green Roof Semi-permeable surface Building