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Revolution of 1896
Transcript of Revolution of 1896
1896 Overview In, 1896, there were concrete and objective conditions in the economy, society, and governance that justified the revolution at the time of the Katipunan. However, the Filipinos, were not totally unified. The death of Rizal led to the downfall of Spanish rule in the Philippine Islands (La Islas Filipina) In despite of the conflict between the members of the Katipunan, inferiority of arms, and loss of many lives, the Filipino fought valiantly towards freedom against the corrupt Spanish rule in the country. Discovery of the Katipunan Father Mariano Gil, informed earlier to the Spanish authority in the existence of the Katipunan. The root cause of the discovery was the conflict
between Teodoro Patino
and Apolonio dela Cruz Madre Portera advised Patino to see for Father Gil to seek for an advice. But at that day, he confess to the cura that he knew the aims of the Katipunan. On that day, the police was convinced about the existence of the secret society due to the evidences found in the printing shop of the Diario de Manila. The existence of the Katipunan eventually became known to the authorities through a member, Teodoro Patiño, who confessed it to Father Mariano Gil. Patiño was engaged in a bitter personal dispute with Apolonio de la Cruz. Conditions before the Revolution In the late 1895, before the outbreak of the revolution. The suspicions of the friars were all along correct and undoubtedly, there was a general dissatisfaction among the Filipinos. Of the most serious cause was the abuse of the friars and authorities. The most remembered abuse was the martyrdom of the Filipino priests - GomBurZa. August 23, 1898 Cry of the Pugadlawin Cry of the Pugadlawin Bonifacio, wanted the rich Filipinos to finance the activities of the Katipunan but many refused with the exception of some like Dr. Pio Valenzuela. When the Katipunan was descovered in August 19, Bonifacio and his wife from Caloocan, Gregoria de Jesus flee to Balintawak. Bonifacio ordered them to bring out their cedulas and tear them into pieces. The Fighting Begins While the event of Pugadlawin was happening, a group of Katipuneros from Manila informed Bonifacio that the gwardia civil were following them. Bonifacio advised his men to retreat to Pasong Tamo on the 25th of August. "Anyone who obstructs this sacred ideal of the people will be considered a traitor and an enemy." Bonifacio ordered his men to sacked San Juan del Monte Arsenal that took place on the 30th of August. By August 30, the revolt had spread to eight provinces. On that date, Governor-General Blanco declared a "state of war" in these provinces and placed them under martial law. These were Manila, Bulacan, Cavite, Pampanga, Tarlac, Laguna, Batangas, and Nueva Ecija. "Blanco's Policy of Attraction" Declaration of Martial Law Fort Santiago was fulled with innocent
Filipinos including the wealthy ones. Rizal and the Revolution When Rizal was exiled to Dapitan in 1982 due to his novels and other pamphlets attacking the corrupt friars
& authorities, the reign of Spanish brutality came and ordered the trial and execution of the latter. In 1896, Rizal appealed to the colonial government
to allow him to go to Cuba and serve as a physician. Manila de Bay Dapitan Shrine Rizal explained that he had stopped any engagement in politics when he was exiled in Dapitan. But the court fasten the process and sentenced Rizal with shot to death. Schism of Katipunan On september 5, 1896, Emilio Aguinaldo (Heneral Miong) won victory over the Spaniards. Alvarez and Aguinaldo Bonifacio went to Cavite to unify the divided factions. In an assembly in December 31, 1896 in Imus. On March 22, 1897, a convention was held at a captured estate house in Tejeros. Bonifacio was elected as Director of the Interior. When Bonifacio was proclaimed, Daniel Tirona stood up and rejected Bonifacio's proclaimation. "Acta de Tejeros" Naik Military Agreement The Execution of Bonifacio Aguinaldo heard of the agreement in Naik and ordered his men to pursuade Bonifacio to recognize the election results. Bonifacio & Procopio was sentenced to death on May 10, 1897. Aguinaldo commuted the punishment to deportation. Major Lazaro Makapagal and General Mariano Noriel Biak-na-Bato Republic Primo de Rivera failed to win the Filipinos back to Spain. Early in July, Aguinaldo established a republican government known as the Biak--Bato Republic.
Truce of Biak-na-Bato Pedro Paterno as a negotiator . On December 14, 1897, Paterno and Primo de Rivera signed documents that constitutes the TRUCE OF BIAK-NA-BATO. Provisions:
o That Aguinaldo and his companions go into voluntary exile abroad
o That Primo de Rivera would pay P800,000 to the rebels in three installments:
o P400,000: Aguinaldo upon his departure from Biak-na-Bato
o P200,000: when the arms surrendered by the revolutionists exceeded 700
o P200,000: when the Te Deum was sung and General Amnesty was proclaimed by the governor
o That Primo de Rivera pay an additional P900,000 to the families of the non-combatant Filipinos who suffered during the armed conflict
Failure of the Truce One of the Filipino military leaders, General Francisco Makabulos of Tarlac was suspecious of the Spanish motives and established a temporary government with his famous Makabulos Constitution.