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Similarities and differences between Bacteria and Fungi
Transcript of Similarities and differences between Bacteria and Fungi
What are Fungi?
Group of eukaryotic organisms separate from plants & animals, can be unicellular(yeasts) or multicellular (hyphae)
Similarities w/ Bacteria & Fungi
1.) Both get their food the same way: heterotrophs feed off organic carbon for their nutrients.
What are Bacteria?
Tiny single-celled prokaryotic microorganisms that exist together in millions. Live everywhere except sterilized areas
Come in three main shapes:
Spherical - Simplest ones shaped like a ball. Called cocci
Rod shaped- Rod shaped bacterial cells are known as bacilli. Curved rod-shaped bacteria are called vibrio
Spiral- Spiral shaped bacteria are called spirill. Tight coils are known as spirochetes
Evolution: first organisms on earth, evolved 3.5 billion years ago
Can be heterotroph (eat other organisms)- heterotroph bacteria absorb rotting flesh. Some kill host and some help host
Can be autotroph (make their own food)- make food by photosynthesis(sunlight, CO2, & H20) and chemosynthesis (CO2, H2O, & chemicals like ammonia) ex: nitrogen fixers
Reproduction: asexual, binary fission & in some cases conjugation (when bacteria cells exchange DNA)
Basal body - holds down flagellum so it can rotate
Capsule - sticky layer of polysaccharide on outside of cell wall, protects cell from dehydration
Cell wall - thin layer that protects cell, is permeable, allows free movement of water & ions
DNA - inside cytoplasm, contains all the genetic info used for development and functioning
Cytoplasm - aqueous solution in plasma membrane, contains ribosomes
Flagellum - this is used for movement; to propel the cell. Some bacterial cells have more than one.
Pili - Spikes allow cell to stick to surfaces & transfer genetic material to other cells. Does conjugation
Plasma membrane - produces energy & transports chemicals. Substances can pass through the membrane
Ribosomes - protein is synthesized, made of RNA
Positive & negative effects.
Positive- Release nitrogen to plants, decompose organic matter, used to make milk, cheese, & yogurt
Negative- Cause illnesses (strep throat, tuberculosis, salmonella), water contamination, & spoiling of food
Differences between Bacteria & Fungi
Evolution: evolved 900 million years ago in aquatic environments. Derived from protists
Structure: most fungi string their cells together in thread-like strands( hypha). Strands build hyphae, is visible when grows in thickly in masses called mycelium (mold).
Heterotophs: consume organic carbon to survive. Hyphae spreads in soil & rotten wood feeding off organic remains by secreting hydrolytic enzymes, dissolving the matter, then reabsorbing nutrients. Fungi team up with plants (mycorrhizae) plants swap some of their carbohydrates with Fungi in return for phosphorus, magneusium, & copper.
Reproduction: reproduce by single celled spores; asexually & sexually. Fruiting bodies (toadstools and mushroooms) release spores that either germinate alone forming a new fungi individual (asexual) or spores can join together to form new organism (sexual reproduction). Sexual spores develop in special layer called hymenium. Expansion occurs rapidly, fungi pops up over night.
2.) Both cause harm to human body: bacteria causes strep throat, salmonella, & pneumonia. Fungus can cause athletes foot & ringworm
3.) Both contain a cell membrane and cell wall
1.) Bacteria are small- celled prokaryotes
1.) Fungi are large- celled Eukaryotes
Positive & Negative effects:
Positive- some fungi is edible (mushrooms), yeast is used for bread, the antibiotic penicillin is used as vaccine
Negative- spoil food, plant disease, can attack vegetable crops, athletes foot
4.) Both produce food sources that humans eat
2.) Bacteria are single- celled
Nucleus: contains genetic info. DNA attached to histone proteins in chromosomes
Ribosomes: Protein factory cellsl. Messenger RNA reads at ribosome & proteins are assembled during translation.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER): attached to nuclear membrane and is a site of secreted and membrane-linked molecule assembly
Golgi Bodies: Lipids and proteins made in the ER are “sorted” here. Any modifications to proteins for export or for the cell membrane are made here.
Mitochondria: Membrane-bound organelles that are the site of cellular aerobic respiration andoxidative phosphorylation. Plant cells also have chloroplasts which are the sites of photosynthesis.
Lysosomes & Peroxisomes: cellular recycling and degradation of foreign bodies
The Cytoskeleton: made from actin filaments,intermediate filaments & microtubules. Regulate movement of cells & directions in which they grow.
The Cell Membrane: regulate which membrane-insoluble molecules get to enter and leave (depending on carrier proteins & ion channels) Lipid bilayer, phospholipid molecules can move freely in layers
2.) Majority of fungi are multi- cellular
3.) Have 3 distinct shapes
3.) Shapes vary
4.) Mostly reproduce by binary fission
4.) Capable of reproducing sexually and asexually
5.) Cell wall made of peptidoglycan
5.) Cell wall made of chitin
6.) Cell contains organelles like ER to produce complex proteins
6.) Cell lacks organelles
7.) Some bacteria can produce their own food
7.) Fungi cannot produce their own food
5.) Both are composed of a cytoplasm