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Transcript of Carthage
Dido 814 – c. 760 BC (queen)
Hanno I c. 580 – c. 556 BC
Malchus c. 556 – c. 550 BC
Mago I c. 550 – c. 530 BC
Hasdrubal I c. 530 – c. 510 BC
Hamilcar I c. 510–480 BC
Hanno II 480–440 BC
Himilco I (in Sicily) 460–410 BC
Hannibal I 440–406 BC
Himilco II 406–396 BC
Mago II 396–375 BC
Mago III 375–344 BC
Hanno III 344–340 BC
Hanno the Great 340–337 BC
Gisco 337–330 BC
Hamilcar II 330–309 BC
Bomilcar 309–308 BC The First Sicilian War The First Sicilian War Gelos the Greek tyrant of Syracuse set out to unify Sicily under his rule. Hamilcar I of Carthage was concerned about the situation and sent out an army of about 300,000 that would be commanded by him directly. On the way to Sicily a storm broke out and caused severe losses for the Carthaginians. When Hamilcar finally reached Sicily he spent 3 days busy organizing his army and repairing ships. After the 3 days he started on a march to Himera (a city in Northern Sicily) on the way there he meats a force of Syracuse and so begins the Battle of Himera in which 50,000 Carthaginian soldiers where defeated by a smaller 21,000 Syracusian army. After the battle it is said that Hamilcar committed suicide in shame. The senate back at Carthage negotiated a peace treaty, Carthage would pay 2000 talents but would keep their territories in Sicily. The Second Sicilian War Two greek cities in Sicily, and Selinus and Segesta engaged in a war. The war went badly for Segesta with Selinus taking over some of Segesta's land. Segesta then asked Cathage for help, Carthage agreed to help them. The Carthaginians then sent a relief force which helped beat Selinus in 410 B.C.E. Diplomacy then got underway with Selinus but to no avail. Then Carthage sent over more troops which decisively beat Selinus and its allies which ended with capture of Selinus. Carthage went on to fight more battles with the allies of Selinus but eventually secured its control of Sicily. The First Punic War The war began as minor conflict between Syracuse and Messina. Messina enlisted the help of the Carthaginian Navy but later betrayed them by asking the Roman Senate for aid against the Carthaginians. The Romans then promptly sent a garrison to Messina. Which outraged the Carthaginians who then started sending aid to Syracuse. It then escalated into a full-scale war. The Roman infantry was superior to the Carthaginian one and proceeded to beat it in multiple conflicts. Initially the Roman navy was devastated by the larger Carthaginian navy. The Roman navy also was not as experienced as its Carthaginian counterpart. The Romans successfully circumvented this by building an assault plank on their ships that would lock onto the enemy ship and allow the Roman infantry to come on board and capture the ship. The Romans where then able to defeat the Carthaginian Navy. Carthage was forced to sign a treaty where it gave up Sicily and payed Rome a large sum of money. The Second & Third Punic Wars Carthage though devastated was successful in restoring its former wealth later by expanding its colonies on Iberia. The War began when Saguntum (a city in Iberia) which has special protection from Rome began murdering its pro-Carthaginian factions. Which resulted in Carthage attacking Saguntum with its Army under Hannibal who after conquering Saguntum proceeded to make his way through the Swiss Alps with Elephants along with him. Elephants would be used by the Carthaginian as a Psychological weapon since an elephant storming at you is a shock to those who had never seen elephants. Once Hannibal arrived in Italy he decimated multiple legions of the Roman Army and proceeded to march around Italy talking to local cities in an attempt to make them rebel, he was not successful at making them rebel. So Hannibal continued his campaign but he was unable to get the rest of the Roman army in to open battle. So Hannibal was forced to forage around Italy for food to feed his army which made the local cities angry as they began to think of Hannibal as a raider. Finally after 16 years in Italy Hannibal was forced to go back to Carthage as Rome had invaded the surrounding area. When Hannibal got back his army was destroyed at the Battle of Zama by Scipio Africanus. Carthage was forced to sign a treaty where Carthage gave up almost all its claims besides the core territory around Carthage and Carthage would have to pay 10,000 talents. Carthage would be limited to having 10 ships and could only raise an army with Rome's permission. Carthage had thought that the treaty would expire after the 10,000 talents had been paid off. After the debt of 10,000 talents was paid off Carthage built an army of 25,000 men to settle a boarder dispute with a local kingdom. Rome thinking that the treaty had not yet expired declared war on Carthage and then soon after sieged Carthage. After 3 years the Romans where able to break through and when they did, they burned the city down. Carthage had been destroyed. Map of Carthage during the Punic Wars Sources The Wikipedia
Carthage Must Be Destroyed by Richard Miles