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Forensic Science Timeline Project
Transcript of Forensic Science Timeline Project
Known for being the Father of Criminal Detection
He devised first scientific system of personal identifiation using body measurements. This became known as anthropometry in 1879. Alphonse Bertillon April 24, 1787 - March 12, 1853
Orfila is mainly known for being the founder, or Father, of Forensic Toxicology.
He perfected and created new techniques for testing the presence of poisons in crimes. Mathieu Orfila 1822-1911
Galton is remembered for conducting the first definitive study of fingerprints and their classification.
In 1892, he published a treatise titled "Fingerprints" to record his work. Francis Galton Authors 1859-1930
Doyle was known for popularizing physical detection methods in crime scenes.
He was also the creator of the fictional Sherlock Holmes character. The first book, The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, was published in 1891. In all, Doyle wrote 55 stories and 4 novels featuring Sherlock and his partner, Watson. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle Scientists 1887-1954
Lattes is known for devising a simple procedure for determining different blood types (A, B, O, or AB) with a dried bloodstain. Leone Lattes 1891-1955
Goddard used a comparison microscope to determine if a bullet was fired from a certain gun.
Later on, he publishd his study of "tool marks" on bullets. Calvin Goddard 1858-1946
Osborn developed fundamental principles for document examination.
He was also responsible for acceptance of documents as scientific evidence by the courts. Albert Osborn 1847-1915
Gross wrote the first treatise describing the application of scientific principles to the field of criminal investigation.
He was also widely accepted as the grandfather of modern criminalistics.
Gross also wrote the Encyclopedia of Criminology. Hans Gross 1877-1966
Locard demonstrated how the principles developed by Gross could be incorporated into a workable crime lab.
His exchange principles states that once contact is made between 2 surfaces, a transfer of material(s) will occur. Edmond Locard 1902-1970
Kirk participated in the Manhattan Project because of his extensive experience in microscopy. He even created the major Technical Criminology.
He's best known for his work in the Sam Sheppard case. After completing a bloodstain pattern analysis, he relentlessly asked for a retrial of Shepperd who was convicted guilty. With this new evidence, Kirk proved him clean. Paul Kirk J. Edgar Hoover was considered the "Father of the FBI". He was director of the FBI during the 1930's.
His career covered the Great Depression, World War II, and the Korean, Cold, and Vietnam Wars.
In all, he served 48 years and 8 Presidential administrations.
He organized a national lab to offer forensic sciences to all law enforcement agencies in the United States.
However, he was very controversial. Hoover abused authority with his illegal wiretaps that weren't based on criminal activity.
Because of his extensive term, FBI director terms are now 10 years max. J. Edgar Hoover Influential/Interesting Cases The Sherlock Holmes character was based on a real person: Joseph Bell, a former university professor. Bell had the same powers of observation that Holmes had in the novels. Did you know? Orfila became royal physician to the French Monarch King Louis XVIII in 1816. Did you know? Bertillon originally signed up for the French Army in 1875 but was later discharged. In 1879, he started his police career. Did you know? Galton's original goal was to become a doctor. Near the end of the 1830s, he studied at Birmingham's General Hospital and at King's College in London; however, he soon abandoned this career and took up mathematics. Did you know? The book he published to share his findings was titled L'Individualita del sangue nella biologia, nella clinica, nella medicina, legale. Did you know? Goddard was once the editor of American Journal of Police Science, America’s first scientific police journal. Did you know? His son, Albert D. Osborn, was a forged document analyst. Did you know? In the years 1878-1879, Gross participated in military operations in the territory of Bosnia. Did you know? During World War I, Locard worked as a medical examiner to identify causes and locations of death by looking at stains or dirt left on soldier's uniforms. Did you know? Kirk first became interested in Forensic Science when, as a professor of biochemistry at UC Berkeley, a student asked him if it could be determined if a dog had died of poisoning. Did you know? A movie about J. Edgar Hoover was released in 2011 starring Leonardo DiCaprio. It was directed by Clint Eastwood. Did you know? Charles Lindbergh Jr., the son of the famous aviator, was 20 months old when he was kidnapped on March 1, 1932.
$50,000 dollars were paid in ransom for the kid, but he was never returned. In May, Charles's body was discovered a few miles from his home.
Authorities tracked where the ransom money went which led them to Bruce Hauptmann. He denied that the money he had (over $14,000) didn't belong to him.
Handwriting analysts studied his handwriting and the ransom notes, and they proved him guilty. He was convicted and executed in 1936. The Lindbergh Kidnapping In the years 1979 - 1981, 29 people, almost all kids, were all strangled by a serial killer.
On a stakeout at a local river where the bodies were dumped, the police arrested Wayne Williams who was trying to drive away.
On his victims, there were more than 30 fibers linked to items in Williams's house such as his vehicle and dog.
In 1982, he was convicted of killing 2 adults and was sentenced to life in prison even though he was responsible for at least 22 child murders. The Atlanta Child Murders Clifford Irving and Richard Suskind planned to forge a biography of the billionaire, Howard Hughes, in 1970. They assumed that he wouldn't "come out of hiding" to protest.
Irving went to the publisher McGraw-Hill with the claim that Hughes told him his life story. He even forged documents to prove his claim. McGraw-Hill agreed and paid $765,000 for the book to be published.
However, Hughes DID protest to McGraw-Hill, saying that the book was false.
After numerous tests including voice print and handwriting analysises The Howard Hughes Hoax June 1984 and August 1985: a guy in California, named the Night Stalker, broke into homes and killed 13 people and assaulted others.
On August 24, 1985, a teenager saw a suspicious car driving in the neighborhood and gave the license plate number to the police.
That same night, the Stalker committed another attack, but his car was abandoned. The police found a fingerprint which traced to a man named Richard Ramirez.
After a week of his picture being posted in the media, he was found and sentenced to death. The Night Stalker On July 22, 1933, George "Machine Gun" Kelly and another man kidnapped Charles Urschel, a wealthy Oklahoma City oilman.
He ended up getting $200,000 in ransom, the highest ransom amount paid in a kidnapping to date.
9 days later, Urschel was released. Even though he was blindfolded, he remembered many details including animals he heard and thunderstorms and when he heard airplanes.
The FBI used this information to narrow it down to a farm that was owned by Kelly's father-in-law. Urschel made sure to put as many of his fingerprints in the house. Kelly was sentenced to life in prison where he died in 1954. Machine Gun Kelly In the 1980's and 1990's, a killer known as the Green River Killer murdered at least 48 to 90 people, most of them being prostitutes in Washington State.
Gary Ridgway was an early suspect in 1983, but the technology of the time couldn't link his DNA samples to the killings.
In 2001, the technology improved enough to prove Ridgway guilty of the crimes. He revealed that he killed more people in order to be spared from the death penalty.
Ridgway was sentenced to 48 life sentences to prison without the possibility of parole. The Green River Killer Ted Bundy was responsible for at least 30 murders when he was arrested in 1975, but he was only convicted of kidnapping because he did a great job at not leaving physical evidence behind that could trace back to him.
In 1977, he escaped and headed to Florida before facing trial in Colorado. Bundy killed 3 more people and physical evidence from those cases took down Bundy for good in 1978. His teeth marks matched exactly on one of his victims bodies. Bundy was put to death in 1989 The Ted Bundy Case Between 1974 and 1991, the BTK ("Bind, torture, kill") killer attacked the Wichita, Kansas area, killing 10 people over that course of time.
He loved media attention, so he sent letters to t.v. stations and newspapers taunting them.
This egotistical attitude led to his capture. He sent a floppy disk to the Wichita Eagle. Analysts traced it back to a man named Dennis Rader. He was sentenced to 9 life sentences in prison. The BTK Killer On February 17, 1970, Jeffrey MacDonald's, an Army doctor, family was murdered from multiple stab wounds. Jeffrey himself survived only from minor wounds.
Based on the physical evidence, it looked like MacDonald was the killer, but poor investigation techniques caused the case to be dropped.
Several years later, MacDonald was put into trial because of a key piece of evidence: a pajama top.
The pajama top had 21 thrust holes (the same number of stabs) and the holes matched up with the blood on the sheets.
In 1979, MacDonald was convicted of killing his family. He was sentenced to life in prison. Jeffrey MacDonald In Omaha, Nebraska of 1983, there were 2 murders of schoolboys. One of the boys was tied up with a rope the investigators couldn't identify.
But they saw a suspicious man outside the school. They traced the license plate number to a man named John Joubert, a radar technician at the local Air Force base.
Rope like the kind that tied up the boy was found in his belongings. Hair from one of his victims was also found in his car.
Joubert was also linked to a third murder, this one in Maine, in which his teeth marks matched up with the bite on the body.
In conclusion, he was convicted guilty of all three murders and was put to the death on the electric chair in 1996. John Joubert Case Bibliography "10 Famous Criminal Cases Cracked by Forensics." 10 Famous Criminal Cases Cracked by Forensics. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Sept. 2012. <http://www.criminaljusticeschools.org/blog/10-famous-cases-cracked-by-forensics>.
"Albert S. Osborn." Albert S. Osborn. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Sept. 2012. <http://www.nndb.com/people/427/000059250/>.
"Alphonse Bertillon." Absolute Astronomy. Absolute Astronomy, n.d. Web. 02 Sept. 2012. <http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Alphonse_Bertillon>.
"Calvin Goddard (ballistics)." Wikipedia. Wikipedia, n.d. Web. 3 Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calvin_Goddard_%28ballistics%29>.
"Francis Galton Biography." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 02 Sept. 2012. <http://www.biography.com/people/francis-galton-9305647>.
"Hans Gross." Hans Gross. Department of Criminal Law and Criminalistics, n.d. Web. 03 Sept. 2012. <http://www.criminaldep.chnu.edu.ua/en/history/hans_gross.html>.
"How Locard's Exchange Principle Works." HowStuffWorks. HowStuffWorks, Inc, n.d. Web. 03 Sept. 2012. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/locards-exchange-principle1.htm>.
"Paul L. Kirk." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 28 Aug. 2012. Web. 03 Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_L._Kirk>.
"Visible Proofs: Forensic Views of the Body: Galleries: Biographies: Mathieu Joseph Bonaventure Orfila (1787–1853)." U.S National Library of Medicine. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 19 July 2012. Web. 02 Sept. 2012. <http://www.nlm.nih.gov/visibleproofs/galleries/biographies/orfila.html>.