Send the link below via email or IMCopy
Present to your audienceStart remote presentation
- Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
- People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
- This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
- A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
- Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article
Music & Animals
Transcript of Music & Animals
Non-Human Animals By Robyn and Kayla What you will learn... What are Zoömusicology and Biomusicology?
Music and Animal Behaviour
Are animals musical?
How does animal perception of music affect what we know about music in humans? Can animals percieve pitch and rhythm ? Can human music affect the mood/behaviour of animals? Ferret study Snowball the dancing cockatoo The people who make PetCD's seem to think so... There are many different products aimed at animal behaviour out there. Since the general public is mostly concerned with cheering up their pets, most collections are for household pets.
This isn't entirely an impossible theory. There have actually been some studies done to prove that animals can be responsive to human music. What aspects of music can animals perceive? conducted a study testing the behavioral effects of auditory stimulation on kenneled dogs. When dogs are kept in kennels it is a source of great anxiety. Environmental enrichment is one thing researchers are doing to make life easier on these animals. There were 117 dogs in total in the test. They were exposed to 9 songs (4 classical, 3 heavy metal and one psychoacousitally designed song for dog relaxation) over the period of 4 months. It was shown that dogs responded to classical music in relaxed states and showed that heavy metal would cause agitation and didn't seem to be affected either way with the psychoacoustically designed music. Bonobo Monkeys
Snowball (cockatoo) Snowball the dancing Cockatoo chickens (Gvaryahu et al., 1989)
carp (Papoutsoglou et al., 2007)
Asian elephants (Wells and Irwin, 2008)
western lowland gorillas (Wells et al., 2006)
domestic dogs (Wells et al., 2002) Animals just seem to love that classical music. Along with the study on kenneled dogs, it has been studied and suggested that classical music could improve the well-being of... [Other studies with different genres of music include the effects of country music on cattle (Uetake et al., 1997; Wisniewski et al., 1977) and ponies (Houpt et al., 2000).] Kogan, et al. (2012) Bonobos Tamarins Ferrets Researchers conducted an experiment to determine if animals (in this case ferrets) are able to perceive relative pitch, since unlike humans, animals often attend to absolute pitch rather than relative.
In the experiment, three ferrets were trained using positive reinforcement in which sequences of reference and target stimuli were presented. The ferrets were rewarded only when they responded to the correct target.
There were three phases that shaped the ferrets to attend to relative pitch:
phase 1: the animals learned basic sequences of consistent tone pairs with the help of absolute pitch.
phase 2: Absolute pitch cues became varied within a two octave frequency range to emphasize relative pitch.
phase 3: absolute pitch cues were removed and only relative pitch cues were available.
Results: Two of the three ferrets successfully completed the training on all three phases. They achieved significant discriminative performance over the trained four octave range. Interestingly enough, we did find a few articles that mentioned that monkeys are relaxed by heavy metal. Zoömusicology and Biomusicology Zoömusicology Zoömusicology studies music in non-human animals from a more zoösemiotic (animal communication) sort of way. Zoömusicologists often study why animals have music, and not as much how it affects them behaviourally. Biomusicology The study of music from a biological point of view. It is a much more broad approach to the study of music in animals, and encompasses three main areas:
Comparative musicology It's also important to note that zoömusicology is often biomusicological and biomusiclogy is often zoömusicological. Animal music as inspiration for human music So, Are Animals Musical? How do animals perceive music?
Is animal music purely for communication?
Can you teach animals music?
Snake Charmers: Fact or Façade? Animal Communication It is believed that many animals (like birds and whales) use music-like sounds for as a sort of language or as communication, but are these musical sounds truly what we as humans would consider music?
Yes and no. They obviously have many similar qualities, but music in animals is very different than music in humans because it seems to be sexually dimorphic, which means that it's only the males that make music. Males make music to show which one is best for mating with.
So it's not even as much as a language as it is a show of sexual availability. Ultimately, we found that music is species specific.
Although, there is definitely validity in saying that many different musical aspects (pitch, rhythm, timber, BPM, consonance/dissonance, etc...) can play a role in what music animals prefer. "[The study] does fly in the face of what (Pet CD advocates) talk about, which is that more simplistic music should be more relaxing. The plus side is that you can download classical music for free." - Lori Kogan, 2012 So, how does psychoacoustically designed music compare to classical? In that case, maybe your pooch would prefer some Mozart over "Squeaky Deaky"... How does what we know about music in animals affect what we know about music in humans? Although, as we discussed in class, there is the vervet monkey which has different calls to warn of danger coming from different directions; and also the crow which uses separate calls for different scenarios, and also seem to have developed separate dialects. Based on these few example, we see that some animals have the capacity to perceive... Snake Charmers One connection people might make to animals and music is the idea of a snake charmer. The cobra seems to react hypnotically to the music being played by the charmer. But what is it that actually affects the snake?
The cobra actually reacts more to the fact that the lid has been removed from the basket. It has likely been in there for a long time, and the standing is natural to a cobra. They're also defensive and wouldn't attack a charmer because it would be too big to eat. Chances are that it may have tried to bite the flute before and had a nasty surprise and won't try again.
They also can't really hear the sound. They probably react more to the vibrations felt, or the sight of the flute. There has been a recent study (2009) at the Great Ape Trust in which researchers are looking at the musical capabilities in Bonobos. Researchers have been working with four Bonobos that were raised in a musical environment giving them a variety of instrument while also playing along side them.
The found that the Bonobos are able to understand elements of music such as pitch, rhythm and timing. They even have their favorite instruments. What is really exciting is that these apes seem to use music like we do, as a social way to express emotion and as a mood setter. They also found preliminary evidence that not only could these apes entrain a beat (synchronize) but they could also subdivide that beat, a quality that is thought to be exclusively human. Evolution of music
Animal music as inspiration How does what we know about music in animals suggest musical evolution in humans? Because music is used in so many animals as a means of sexual selection, it is possible that music evolved out of that. This would begin to explain why music and emotion are so closely tied in many different animals (humans included).
We can also see that the way we hear music and prefer consonant intervals is also translated among different species. Suggesting that those features have been in the brain for a long time.
There is also an interesting link that is tied towards the heartbeat of animals during the gestation period, and the music that they prefer. If the BPM in a song are closer to the animals "internal rhythm" or the rhythm they were used to hearing during gestation, it is more likely to relax them. David Teie, lecturer in the school of music at the University of Maryland and cellist in the National Symphony Orchestra recorded music on his Cello to play for a group of Tamarins. The first time he presented his recording, there was next to no response from the tamarins. He then revised it, speed it up eight times and transposed it three octaves higher. This time around, he did get a reaction from the tamarins. The music made them agitated and they were bouncing off the walls. Teie decided to revise it once more, but this time he changed the pieces tempo to the rate of a tamarins heart. This piece calmed them down.
This study suggests that music is species specific and that music that we as humans like, is not universal in the animal kingdom. It is also important to remember the idea of classical conditioning. An animal can be conditioned to a certain piece of music, and taught to react in a particular way. So is it true learning? Or is it just conditioning? Emotional connections to music We've discussed a lot in this class about how music and emotions are very closely tied in the human brain, and many studies seem to show that that link is evident in many animals as well. Because this seems to be linked across species, we can really see that these connections span back evolutionarily and have major affects on how music makes us feel. Bird and whale song are distinctly musical. Even though those animals don't seem to have a direct emotional connection to the music, and just "sing" for sexually selective purposes, the influence can be seen in a variety of human music. "Luna" by Sultans of String.
Inspired by whale song. "Spring" from Vivaldi's
Many connections to birdsong. Questions? pitch rhythm and timing to an extent a preference for certain styles, and tempo