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Development

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Jeffrey Nathan

on 25 October 2016

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Transcript of Development

Eric Erikson
Jean Piaget
15' on Emerging Adulthood
Otto Kernberg, M.D.
Born in Vienna, lives in NYC.

His model of self and object development describes the growth of internalized object relations units. (An "object" is an image of another person. Important objects are the mother and father. The self is also an internalized unit.)
Stage I (0 to 1 month): Normal autism
This stage is marked by undifferentiated self-object representations.

Stage II (2 to 8 months): Normal symbiosis
Representations are separated into a ‘good’ self-object representation and a ‘bad’ self-object representation. In other words, the child divides the world into two groups; bad things and good things.

Stage III (8 to 36 months): Differentiation of self from object relations
In this stage the ‘good’ self-object representation differentiates into a ‘good’ self and a ‘good’ object and the ‘bad’ self-object representation differentiates into a ‘bad’ self and a ‘bad’ object. A failure of the child to differentiate between self and other results in a psychotic personality organization.

Stage IV (36+ months through the oedipal period): The integration of self representations and object representations
During this Stage the ‘good’ and ‘bad’ self and object representations are integrated. One is able to comprehend the possibility of the self or other containing both positive and negative characteristics. A failure of this results in a borderline personality organization.

Stage V: Consolidation of superego and ego integration
In this stage ego, superego and id are consolidated in definite intrapsychic structures.
By successfully completing all the developmental tasks, the child has developed a neurotic personality organization, which is the strongest personality structure.
6' video on Erikson
Emerging adulthood
is a phase of the life between adolescence and full-fledged adulthood, proposed by
Jeffrey Arnett
.
Background: Basic Psychoanalytic Thought
4' Portrayal of BPD
Psychotic personality organization
– Consists of poor reality testing (the person does not perceive reality along with consensual reality).


Consensual reality
– What everyone agrees reality is.


Borderline personality organization
– Consists of black and white thinking (good or bad, the “splitting defense” – people are either good or bad, and this may switch), difficulty regulating emotions, and the person makes extreme effort to avoid abandonment. This personality organization is on the border of psychosis. A person with a borderline personality will occasionally dip into psychosis.


Neurotic personsality organization
– The individual perceives others as wholes. They may sometimes has difficulty balancing parts of their personality.
Development
8 Major Perspectives of Psychology

1. Neuroscience
2. Evolutionary
3. Behavior Genetics
4. Psychodynamic
5. Behavioral
6. Cognitive
7. Social-Cultural
8. Humanistic
Child and Adolescent Clinical Psychology
Konrad Lorenz, MD, PhD (1903 - 1989) Viennese ethologist who studied imprinting behavior among ducks. He was able to act as a mother to newborn ducklings and they followed him like he was their mother. This sparked interest in attachment.
Attachment
Imprinting - Phase-sensitive learning (learning occurring at a particular age or a particular life stage) that is rapid and apparently independent of the consequences of behavior.
A lasting psychological connectedness between human beings.
John Bolby, MD (1907 - 1990) A British psychoanalyst who is the originator of the field of attachment theory.
Mary Ainsworth, PhD (1913 - 1999) was a Canadian developmental psychologist known for her work in early emotional attachment with "The Strange Situation" as well as her work in the development of Attachment Theory.
The Strange Situation
- A child is observed playing for 20 minutes while caregivers and strangers enter and leave the room, recreating the flow of the familiar and unfamiliar presence in most children's lives. The situation varies in stressfulness and the child's responses are observed.
It was originally found that there were three types of attachment styles; secure, avoidant, and ambivalent. Later, the disorganized attachment was identified.
Children with
Secure Attachment
exhibit distress when separated from caregivers and are happy when their caregiver returns. These children feel secure and able to depend on their adult caregivers. When the adult leaves, the child may be upset but he or she feels assured that the parent or caregiver will return. When frightened, securely attached children will seek comfort from caregivers. These children know their parent or caregiver will provide comfort and reassurance, so they are comfortable seeking them out in times of need.

Children with
Ambivalent Attachment
passively or actively show hostility toward the parent. Research suggests that ambivalent attachment is a result of poor maternal availability. These children cannot depend on their mother (or caregiver) to be there when the child is in need.

Children with
Avoidant Attachment
tend to avoid parents or caregivers. When offered a choice, these children will show no preference between a caregiver and a complete stranger. Research suggests that this attachment style might be a result of abusive or neglectful caregivers. Children who are punished for relying on a caregiver will learn to avoid seeking help in the future.

Children with
Disorganized Attachment
exhibit contradictory, disoriented behaviors such as approaching but with the back turned, displaying dazed behavior, sometimes seeming either confused or apprehensive in the presence of a caregiver.
Here's some data about the prevalence of the different attachment styles:

Play Therapy

Play therapy is a form of psychotherapy for children which allows them to communicate via actions with objects rather than words.


ADHD

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is the most common childhood mental health disorder. The prevalence among children is 9%, with boys (12% prevalence) being twice as likely to be diagnosed with the disorder than girls (5% prevalence). The incidence of the disorder has been estimated to be between 7-16% (Barbaresi et al., 2002).
The symptom categories yield three potential classifications of ADHD—predominantly inattentive type, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type, or combined type if criteria for both subtypes are met:

Predominantly inattentive type symptoms include:
•Be easily distracted, miss details, forget things, and frequently switch from one activity to another
•Have difficulty maintaining focus on one task
•Become bored with a task after only a few minutes, unless doing something enjoyable
•Have difficulty focusing attention on organizing and completing a task or learning something new or trouble completing or turning in homework assignments, often losing things (e.g., pencils, toys, assignments) needed to complete tasks or activities
•Not seem to listen when spoken to
•Daydream, become easily confused, and move slowly
•Have difficulty processing information as quickly and accurately as others
•Struggle to follow instructions.

Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type symptoms include:
•Fidget and squirm in their seats
•Talk nonstop
•Dash around, touching or playing with anything and everything in sight
•Have trouble sitting still during dinner, school, and story time
•Be constantly in motion
•Have difficulty doing quiet tasks or activities

and also these manifestations primarily of impulsivity:
•Be very impatient
•Blurt out inappropriate comments, show their emotions without restraint, and act without regard for consequences
•Have difficulty waiting for things they want or waiting their turns in games

Assessment

Diagnosis of ADHD is done by interviewing the parents and child, use of checklists and structured interviews, classroom observation, and the use of the Continuous Performance Test (CPT). The CPT is a task-oriented computerized assessment of attention disorders and neurological functioning.

Thesis 1
Life has certain milestones. A person should meet them on time.

Thesis 2
Everybody has their own life. It doesn't matter how fast you meet milestones.
Degree
Marriage
Family
Some basic terms
Kernberg's Model of Self and Object Development

Kernberg's model consists of five stages.
The individual moves from psychotic to neurotic organization.
Child-Centered Play Therapy
7'
Introduction to Play Therapy

Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor stage:
(0-2) Children this age experience the world through movement and senses (use five senses to explore the world). These children are extremely egocentric, meaning they cannot perceive the world from others' viewpoints. Object permanence is the understanding that objects - and people - continue to exist even if they are out of sight. Infants develop this understanding by the end of this stage.

Preoperational stage:
(2- 6 or 7) Magical thinking predominates; motor skills are acquired. Egocentrism begins strongly and then weakens. The
principle of conservation
is the knowledge that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects. Children in this stage do not understand that principle or use logical thinking.

Concrete operational stage:
(6 or 7 - 11) Children in this stage begin to think logically but are very concrete in their thinking. These children can now conserve and think logically but only with practical aids. They are no longer egocentric.

Formal operational stage:
(12 onwards) Development of abstract reasoning. Children in this stage develop abstract thought, can easily conserve, and think logically.
Attachment in Adults
Kim Bartholomew and others have presented a model that identified four categories or styles of adult attachment. Their model was based on the idea attachment styles reflected people's thoughts about their partners and thought about themselves. They proposed four categories based on positive or negative thoughts about partners and on positive or negative thoughts about self.


Attachment in Adults (Continued)

Secure
- It is relatively easy for me to become emotionally close to others. I am comfortable depending on others and having others depend on me. I don't worry about being alone or having others not accept me.

Dismissive
– (a continuation of the child Avoidant category) I am comfortable without close emotional relationships. It is very important to me to feel independent and self-sufficient, and I prefer not to depend on others or have others depend on me.

Preoccupied
– (a continuation of the child Ambivalent category) I want to be completely emotionally intimate with others, but I often find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. I am uncomfortable being without close relationships, but I sometimes worry that others don't value me as much as I value them. There is evidence that adults with this type of attachment may tend to get involved in a relationship with someone who is emotionally or physically unavailable. This is an example of
repetition compulsion
, which is the unconscious wish to put a new ending on an old trauma. For example, a girl has a father who is emotionally unavailable. As an adult she unconsciously seeks emotionally unavailable men in the hope to make them available and finally get what she did not in childhood.

Fearful
– (very loosely fitting the child Disorganized category) I am somewhat uncomfortable getting close to others. I want emotionally close relationships, but I find it difficult to trust others completely, or to depend on them. I sometimes worry that I will be hurt if I allow myself to become too close to others.

Treatment

Children who are diagnosed with ADHD are often prescribed stimulants, which paradoxically enables them to settle down and concentrate. Sales of stimulants for ADHD amounted to $9 billion in 2012.

Films on demand

ADHD: A Controversial Medical Condition


Piaget - Cognitive development
Freud - Psychosexual development
Erikson - Psychosocial development
Kohlberg - Moral development
Amy Cuddy

https://www.ted.com/talks/amy_cuddy_your_body_language_shapes_who_you_are
A single, general factor for mental ability is called ______?

Intelligence tests claim to measure ______________.
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
Psychosocial Development
Swiss psychologist
1896-1980
German-born American Psychoanalyst
1902 -1994
Psychodynamic Approach
* How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts
* Early development is important
* Relationships are important, especially early relationships
with mother and father
What is your favorite perspective in psychology?
Analyze yourself in 6-8 sentences.
Full transcript