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Chemistry of the human body

oxidation, elements, composition of a cell, covalent bonding(hemoglobin), chemical nature of hormones

Britainy Barnes

on 4 January 2013

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Transcript of Chemistry of the human body

Oxidation Elements Found in the Body Composition of a Cell Covalent Bonding in Blood Chemical Nature of Hormones Chemistry of the Human Body Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Oxygen Macronutrients Build bones Make cell structures Regulate pH Carry charge Drive chemical reactions 30 elements are essential to human life. All elements found in .05% or higher of the body are called essential elements. The ones found only in trace amounts (1st row transition metals) are needed for many enzymes to function are called trace elements Prostaglandins from arachidonicacid from linoleic acid Others
(derived from lipids) Amino Acid Derivatives Glycoproteins Thyroid stimulating hormones (TSH)
Follicular stimulating hormone (TRH)
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) Cathecholamines
Thyroid hormones Insulin
Parathyroid hormone
Antidiuretic hormones (ADH)
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Beta Lipotropin
Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH): growth+prolactin+chorionic sommatotropin Steroids Adrenocortial hormones
Sex hormones
Dihydroxycholecalceferol Peptides
Proteins Hormones are chemical substances produced in the body that affect the activity of some organs. Hormones can be either proteins (human growth hormone) or polypeptides (insulin+glucagon produced in the pancreas+control carbohydrate metabolism). DNA is also controlled by proteins. Steroid hormones: fat soluble+made from cholesterol. Males&females make all 3 sex hormones just in different amounts. Steroids pass into a cell's nucleus, bind to a specific receptor/gene and the cell makes proteins.
Amino acid derivatives: water-soluble molecules that are stored in endocrine cells. They bind to protein receptors on the cell's outside surface which makes a second messenger molecule, located inside the cell, activate enzymes+influence the way genes are expressed
Polypeptide hormones: water-soluble and consist of long amino acid chains. They are use in the metabolism, lactation, reproduction and growth processes. Nucleus Cytoplasm Cell Membrane Mitochondrion Lysosome Endoplasmic Reticulum
ribosomes Where DNA is kept and RNA is transcribed. movement in and out of the nucleus happens through the nuclear pores. Ribosomes are formed in the nucleolus, a dark spot on the nucleus. transport system for molecules that cause certain changes +where protein synthesis happens (RNA into protein) "Digestive system" breaks down molecule into its basic components semi-permeable barrier which keeps the majority of produced chemicals in the cell Material between the cell membrane and nuclear envelope which maintains the shape of the cell+anchors organelles Main energy source of the cell "powerhouse" A cell is the smallest unit of life there is. Humans are made up of eukaryotic (contain a nuclei) cells. Cells interact to form tissues which then are assembled into organs that form a human. Blood is very complex because it transports dissolved gasses+nutrients+waste products, regulates the pH of the body's fluid, carries hormones, and aids in homeostasis. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported by red blood cells full of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin binds when its iron containing heme group binds to oxygen at high concentrations and breaks at low concentrations Hemoglobin forms alpha helixes stabilized by hydrogen bonds, giving it a tetrahedral shape. A heme is made up of an iron atom bound to four nitrogens. The iron is covalently bound to the globular protein and can also be coordinately covalently bound to oxygen which would complete the octahedral. When Oxygen is not bound, a water molecule very weakly attaches. The oxygen molecule found in the body is able to extract single electrons from the large molecules of cell membranes making it highly reactive. These active molceules can join and change the properties of the cell membrane. after enough of these reactions the body recognizes the changed cell as an enemy and destroys it. When the cells irreplaceable, like nerve cells, it can become harmful. Oxyhemoglobin is diamagnetic, yet oxygen and ion are paramagnetic. Oxygen's electron configuration [He] 2s^2 2p^4 while Iron's is Fe [Ar] 4s^2 3d^6. the only way to achieve a diamagnetic oxyhemoglobin is through oxidation. *common: Fe 2+ or 3+
*common: O 2- or 1- (peroxide)
Since the combination where both of the oxidation states are the most common ones is possibility 2 this is oxyhemoglobin's oxidation state. Singlet oxygen (possiblity 1) and large separations of charge (possiblity 3) are both high energy states. When Iron oxidizes to a higher state it decreases the Hb-02 atom's size Possibilities 2) Fe 3+ binds to
O2(peroxide) 1- 3) Fe 4+ binds to O 2- 1) Fe 2+ binds to O Bibliography Information Pictures http://www.livescience.com/3505-chemistry-life-human-body.html
Zumdahl, Steven S., and Susan A. Zumdahl. Chemistry. 5th. Boston: Houghton Mifflin College Div, 2000. 172, 894,1109-1111. Print. 1)http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookchem2.html
11)http://us.123rf.com/400wm/400/400/eraxion/eraxion1110/eraxion111000800/11022316-uprising-human-body.jpg 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 7) 6) 8) 9) 10) 11) The End! By: Britainy B.
4th pd
PAP Chemistry
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