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Chapter 1 - The First Americans

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Cyndie Deurmeier

on 4 November 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 1 - The First Americans

3,000 b.c.
B.C./A.D.
1400
7,000 b.c.
1200 A.D.
Chapter 1 - The First Americans
The Journey from Asia
First people to migrate from Asia to North, Central, and South America during the last Ice Age
Migration took centuries
cred a land bridge from Siberia to NE Asia to present-day Alaska -- Land bridge: Beringia
Beringia is under the waters of the Bering Strait (currently)
Settling Down
as the mammoths began to die off (and larger animals), Native Americans hunted smaller game
Section 2
Cities and Empires
Who is Hiram Bingham?
What is his importance?
Where is Machu Picchu?

Early Civilizations
Section 3
North American Peoples
Early Native Americans
Other Native North Americans
Native American Cultures arise out of the cultures of Anasazi and the Moundbuilders
Peoples of the Plains and
East and Southeast
Dakota
Cherokee
Onondaga
Seneca
Mohawk
Oneida
Cayuga
Seminole
Chickasaw
Choctaw
these early peoples were nomads
moving place to place to find food (survival)
skilled hunters
used every part of the animal for food, clothing, weapons, and tools
Nomads
Natives started to eat berries, and not just game
thus, the process of reproducing plants for consumption began
Planting Seeds
The coastline offers:
water
for food
drink
crops
etc.
Fish
food
what else?
Early Communities
Settled in one place for more than a few months brought...
villages & communities
the transfer of knowledge
cultural awareness
Some were still nomadic hunters
The different ways of life helped to develop different Native American cultures
The Growth of Culture
Machu Picchu
An amazing example of pre-European architecture, and the advancement of culture and civilizations (without the help of the Europeans)
The Maya
The Inca
Cuzco - Capital of the Inca
Powerful Army
Government? How was it set up?
The Aztec
Centuries after the fall of the Maya, the Aztec Peoples wander their way through Mexico...
Built many cities:
each had one stone pyramid (some as high as 20 stories!)
steps up the pyramid
temple on the top
for religion and government
Tikal - modern day Guatemala - largest of Mayan Cities
Theocracy
: A society ruled by religious leaders
how were the Mayans a theocracy?
Record keeping:
skilled astronomers
hieroglyphics: symbols or pictures to represent things, ideas, and sounds
built their civilization in the rainforest
present day Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, and Belize
planted maize, beans, sweet potatoes, etc.
Mayan Cities
no wheeled vehicles
human backs were used to carry items!
some goods transported by water
canoes were used as well on the water.
what types of items were traded via water?
Transport and Trade
decline started around a.d. 900
by 1100 a.d. the civilizations were ghost towns
no one knows what happened to the civilizations, but there are many guesses
what are some of the guesses?
Decline of a Civilization
one of the greatest cities in the Americas
Architecture:
great engineering
building was directed by priests and nobles
Aztec capital expands to the mainland around the lake
Once was the largest city in the Americas and one of the largest in the world.
Tenochtitlan
Aztecs were known as a military empire
conquered rival communities
warriors were well known for...
taking everything from their victims

War and Religion
1519 - 500 Spanish soldiers entered the city - led by Hernan Cortes
Who is Castillo?
what was the importance of water?
A Great City Remembered
present day AZ
A.D. 300 - A.D. 1300
excellent water collectors
depended on canals for irrigation
Artifacts:
canals, pottery, carved stone, and shells (for trade)
Hohokam
The Anasazi
a.d. 1 - a.d. 1300
lived in "Four Corners, USA"
Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona
built pueblos
prehistoric Native Americans built mounds
used for burial chambers
had temples on the top
located from PA - Miss Riv. Valley
"may" have been built 1000 b.c.
The Mound Builders
largest settlement of mound builders
present-day Illinois
16,000 or more residents (called Mississippians
largest mound: Monk Mound
Cahokia
Pueblo Bonito
Mesa Verde
Anasazi
Peoples of the North
settled in the lands around the northernmost part of America
Inuit - some believe these were the last migrants to cross the land bridge
Skills
built igloos
clothing out of furs and seal skins
hunters/fishers
hunted caribou
Peoples of the West
Climate:
mild, dependable food sources
Tlingit, Haida, Chinook
Nez Perce, Yakima
Pomo
Ute, Shoshone
Peoples of the Southwest
Hopi, Acoma, Zuni
Apache, Navajo
Full transcript