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AP Bio Cell Organelles Assignment

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by

Yash Singh

on 28 August 2013

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Transcript of AP Bio Cell Organelles Assignment

By: Yash Singh
Cell Organelles
Organelles in Animal Cells Only
Organelles Exclusive to or Different in Prokaryotic Cells only
Nucleus
Location: Is not generally located towards the edge of the cell as it is more safe at the center
Structure:
- relatively large organelle with a
double-layered membrane with pores
- attached to a structure of tubules
and sacs called the Endoplasmic
Reticulum
Function:
- Regulates all cell activity and controls the function of all other organelles
- Stores cell's hereditary material (DNA)
Nucleolus
Location: the core of the nucleus
Structure: a structure that takes up to
25 percent of the nucleus and does
not have a membrane
Function:
- Manufactures subunits that combine
to form ribosomes, assisting other
organelles in the protein-producing
process
Endoplasmic Reticulum (smooth and rough)
Location: Located near and continuous with the outer layer of the nucleus
Structure:
- a network of sacs and branching
tubules that are interconnected by a
single continuous membrane
- connected to the double-layer
membrane of the nucleus
Function:
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) is
covered with ribosomes and is the site of protein synthesis
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER) is less extensive than the RER but helps maintain metabolism
- works together with other cells to produce and process proteins
Golgi apparatus
Location: Located around the nucleus and near the endoplasmic reticulum
Structure:a large organelle made up
of a series of five to eight
membrane-covered sacs called
cisternae
Function:
-Organizes, packages, and sorts
macromolecules that the cell secretes
- acts as a distribution and shipping
department for the cell's chemical products
which it sends to other organelles
Mitocondria
Location: scattered throughout the
cytoplasm
Structure: rod-shaped organelles with
an inner and outer membrane to
protect its internal matrix containing
many channels
Function: Generate most of the ATP, a
source of chemical energy that allows
other organelles to perform their
functions
Lysosomes
Location: In the cytoplasm but near the golgi apparatus
Structure: spherical organelles
contained by a single layer
membrane. Shape can vary slightly
Function:
- recycle cell's organic material by
digesting worn-out organelles and
food particles, allowing for the use
of other organelles
- destroys harmful viruses or bacteria
Peroxisomes
Location: scattered throughout the
cytoplasm
Structure: Peroxisomes have a plasma
membrane with a lipid bilayer that
protect its core
Function:
- Contain a variety of enzymes that rid the
cell of toxic substances such as hydrogen
peroxide and protect the rest of the cell
- Break down long fatty acids which are then shuttled to the mitochondria
Centrioles
Location: near the nucleus in the centrosome, the organizing center for microtubules
Structure: Each centriole is made up
of nine bundles of microtubules
Functions:
- work with other organelles to assist
in cell reproduction
- duplicate during mitosis of animal cells
and produce spindle fibers which attach to chromosomes
Plasma membrane
Location: located on the very outer part of the cell and is the first form of defense
Structure: composed of a bilayer
of lipids, oily substances found in
the cell. Many proteins are
embedded in the membrane
while others are simply attached
Function:
- serves as a barrier to the outside
environment and acts as a natural filter, allowing only certain things to enter in order to protect the rest of the cell
Cytosol
- also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) is the liquid found in the cell
Location: Inside the Plasma Membrane
Structure: No shape or structure but is made
up of intracellular fluid (ICF)
Function:
- supports organelles and other cellular components
- many chemical reactions involved in metabolism occur
Ribosomes
Located: mostly found in the cell’s central cytoplasm, but also found in other
parts of the cell
Structure:
- larger in eukaryotic cells and smaller
in prokaryotic cells but usually very small
- 60 percent RNA and 40 percent
protein
Function: Ribosomes are transported across the cell and play a huge role in synthesizing proteins in the cell
Cytoskeleton
Location: Found underlying the cell
membrane in the cytoplasm
Structure: network of mircofilaments, and
microtubules with a strict shape
Function:
- Maintains cell shape and plays a role in
intracellular transport, allowing for cells to communicate and support one another
Flagella
Location:
- located at the exterior of the cell
- can be found at one end, two ends, or completely around the cell
Structure:
- A hair-like organelle with an
outer plasma membrane surrounding
the entire complex, attached to the cell
at the "basal body". Inside are several
microtubules.
- Larger and longer than cilia
Function:
- Allows the cell or bacteria to move around
larger, and fewer in Prokaryotic cells but smaller ones do exist in some Eukaryotic cells
Cilia
Location: Cilia are located at the exterior of the cell
Structure: A hair-like organelle with an
outer plasma membrane surrounding
the entire complex, attached to the cell
at the "basal body". Inside are several
microtubules.
Function:
- Moves fluid or material past the cell
(Ex: Human respiratory system uses Cilia
to filter dust and smog)
- Helps to move a cell or group of cells

Vacuoles
Location: located within the cytoplasm
Structure:
- Membrane-bound
- One or more small vacuoles in
animal cells whereas one large
vacuole in plant cells
- Function:
- In plant cells, it acts as storage for
fluids, waste, ingested food
- In animal cells, it stores materials or
transports substances
Chloroplast
Location: Scattered among the cytoplasm
Structure:
- Shaped like an elipse and has a double
membrane (the outer is much more permeable
than the inner membrane)
- internal membranes with stacks of
hollowed disks called thylakoids
Function:
- Center of photosynthesis and provide plants with chemical energy (ATP) from light, energy that other organelles can use to function
Organelles in Plant Cells only
Present in All Cells
Organelles in All Eukaryotic Cells
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