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The passé composé

An introduction to the past tense in French. Includes lists of irregular past participles, verbs that use être, and how to: form the passé composé, form past participles, make subject-verb agreements, make negative statements in the passé composé
by

Anthony Rufo Jr.

on 8 May 2013

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Transcript of The passé composé

Irregular past participles Memorize these and your life as a French student will be much easier. Regular -er verbs To make the past participle, replace the -er with -é What do we need? 1. Helping Verb (either avoir or être)
2. Past participle Regular -re verbs To make the past participle, replace the -re with -u Regular -ir verbs To make the past participle, remove the -ir and add -i. When to use être as a helping verb Here is a list of verbs that take être as a helping verb:

aller to go rentrer to re-enter
arriver to arrive rester to stay
descendre to descend retourner to return
entrer to enter sortir to go out
monter to go up tomber to fall
mourir to die venir to come
naitre to be born devenir to become
partir to leave revenir to come back
passer to pass by How to talk about things that are done and over with. The passé composé En anglais, s'il vous plait... The English translations of this tense are:
a. verb-ed
b. have verb-ed
c. did verb j’ai mangé... can mean:
a. I ate...
b. I have eaten...
c. I did eat... 1. Infinitive: manger
2. Remove -er: mang
3. Add -é: mangé j’ai aimé nous avons aimé
tu as aimé vous avez aimé
il/elle/on a aimé ils/elles ont aimé Let's try aimer... The past participle is the same for all subject pronouns. Remember: two words, two verbs! For negation: we put ne...pas around the helping verb. Object pronouns go before the helping verb
or between ne... and the helping verb. être été
faire fait avoir eu
vouloir voulu
boire bu
lire lu
voir vu
pleuvoir plu
pouvoir pu
devoir dû mettre mis
prendre pris These groupings are based on final sound. 1. Infinitive: vendre
2. Remove-re: vend
3. Add -u: vendu Let's try perdre... j'ai perdu nous avons perdu
tu as perdu vous avez perdu
il/elle/on a perdu ils/elles ont perdu perdre means "to lose" vendre means "to sell" 1. Infinitive: dormir
2. Remove -ir: dorm
3. Add -i: dormi Let's try finir... j'ai fini nous avons fini
tu as fini vous avez fini
il/elle/on a fini ils/elles ont fini dormir means "to sleep" finir means "to finish" "What is an intransitive verb of motion?" One that does not take a direct object. The easiest way to remember être verbs is to memorize the list. être is different "The verb 'to be' you must agree!" Just like all other agreements in French, when
making a subject-verb agreement we must consider both gender and number. Think of your subject pronouns... Masculine Singular: je, tu, il, vous Feminine singular: je, tu, elle, vous Masculine Plural: nous, vous, ils Feminine plural: nous, vous, elles "on" can go any which way--decide your agreement based on context! Singular subjects If it's a she, then add an -e For masculine singular subjects, we make no changes
to make an agreement. It is the default form (just like
with adjectives and adjective agreements). For feminine singular subjects, we add an -e to the end of our past participle. Édouard est allé au cinéma. Élodie est allée au cinéma. Plural subjects Let me guess...we add an s? For masculine plural and feminine plural subjects, we add an -s to the end of our past participle. François et Jacques sont nés en janvier. Françoise et Jacqueline sont nées en février. We only make feminine agreements when the group of subjects is exclusively female. Franck et Marine sont revenus de Marseille hier. Zoé et Charlotte sont revenues de Nice ce matin. "On"ward... Agreement in context To reiterate, we have to rely on context to make the appropriate subject-verb agreement when on is the subject. On will have masculine agreement when referring to ils or nous. This is also true when using on to say "people (in general)" On will have feminine agreement when referring to elles or nous. You can tell the gender of the subject in a sentence using "on" by looking at the agreement! irregular past participles: naitre: né venir: venu
mourir: mort devenir: devenu
revenir: revenu
Je n'ai pas mangé au café hier.
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