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IB History Paper 2 Wars

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Sam Head

on 10 March 2013

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Transcript of IB History Paper 2 Wars

IB Paper 2 History: Causes of Wars
By Sam Head 13R2 Key areas to consider, concise key evidence, historiography and analysis. Total Wars Case Studies to consider:
World War I
World War II

Causation is split down into three broad categories: Economic, Social and Political Causes. Further dividing (short vs long term)

Notes on historiography are added where necessary. WWI Political Causes Colonial Rivalry - Agadir Gunboat crisis, Fashoda Incident 'scramble for Africa' = Eric Hobsbawm (see economic causes. German Expansionism - Kaiser's Weltpolitik, Legacy of Bismarck's 'Kultur kampf' and a new German nationalist identity. = Fritz Fischer Collapse of Ottoman Empire and Eastern Question - Vacuum of territory in the Balkans, Bulgarian uprisings, Serbian nationalism and Pan Slavism. The Austria-Hungarian empire: Enmity with Russia over the Balkan issue. 'Blank Cheque' from Kaiser Wilhelm. Internal ethnic struggles links to Balkan nationalism. British diplomatic uncertainty (Niall Ferguson) Germany unsure over Britain's views on Belgium and Treaty of London. Economic Causes Britain and Germany in economic turned military competition - 'Capetown-Cairo' vs 'Baghdad-Berlin' Railways - arms race. Austria-Hungary and Russia need military victories to balance out economic pressures at home (1905 Bloody Sunday in Russia) and demands from the Magyars from Austria (Anschluss economic agreements.) Economic competition and demands from all nations - "inevitable war" - Eric Hobsbawm. German Plot - Schlieffen Plan, Germany is failing economically and cultural - July Crisis is carefully planned and managed, expansionism is answer to Germany's problems. Social Causes 19th Century was age of Nationalism, and competing interests escalated until a war was 'time tabled' - Keegan. Russia - Serbian link 'Panslavist' sympathies, matched with Russian frustration at lack of gains in Balkans ie Congress of Berlin and treaty of San Stefano. 1886 Serbia free of A+H. But Bosnia and Herz is not, and is annexed in 1908, ethnic tension. 'Fear of other nations' - July crisis is a chain reaction and no one has fear to halt mobilization - Stoessinger blames leaders at the time. WWII Political Causes Treaty of Versaille - WWII is part of 30 years war created by a mismanaged peace deal. Revamped by Taylor. Germany's political 'Sonderweg' - Unification of Germany has disrupted european equilibrium and it is guaranteed to cause. Failure of appeasement - Britain and France fail to take Hitler to task early enough. Munich Conference was the last change: too much diplomatic ambiguity - Taylor. Failure of L of N disarmament and collective security strategy. Nazi Political Ideology - This is where Germany's actions stem from after Hitler assumes command 'Lebensraum' - Trevor-Roper. Economic Causes A Nazi economy that was flawed and could only be saved by expansion - drives for Autarky under Schacht and Goering's Guns before Butter - Tounley Great Depression - political polarisation damages democracy across europe and provides opportunity for Nazis - Taylor. Causes of War in Europe - personal preference! Hitler's rejection of the terms of the Versailles treaty - Pressures on the German economy... see above. Social Causes Bolshevism vs Nationalism, Russia and Germany are ideological enemies and 'Lebensraum' is needed for Germany with East Europe and Russia as targets. Hitler's 'ceaseless struggle' and rhetoric to the German people, this is where he differed from Bismarck and Stressemann. Eventual goal was destruction of existing european social structure, including anti-semitism. Irregular Nazi policy, reacting to german people, a socially required war to fulfill political rhetoric, including arms build up, Naval expenditure. Limited Wars Case Studies to consider:
Falklands/ Malvinas War
Gulf War

Causation is split down into three broad categories: Economic, Social and Political Causes. Further dividing (short vs long term)

Notes on historiography are added where necessary. Falklands / Malvinas War Political Causes Historical ownership - Argentina didn't exist until 19th C, but Britain didn't make an official claim to the islands before this. Resolution 2065 from UN - British empire in full retreat, 'self determination' claims of Islanders for UK. Population of 2,500 consider themselves British. Military Junta 'Galtieri' - regime of 'terror' needs a Foreign Policy success as a distraction. Thatcher and Conservatives cannot allow Argentina to take Falklands, politically they are in unstable times. Social Causes British public outcry after unwarranted Argentinian invasion. Cold War Context - UK and USA are allies , Britain wants to assert its authority and show Russians a bit of brave brit strength. the first Gulf War Political Causes Iraq's Internal Problems - Large army left over with nothing to do, Ba'ath party leadership concerned by its power and want to keep it away from Baghdad. Vested interest of the west - Middle East has vast oil supply, and Oil crisis showed the economic importance of the region. USA does not sponsor an Islamic nation in the region, needs to maintain influence. End of Cold War - A power vacuum in the region, Hussein as the new 'great arab leader.' UN Political solidarity with Saudi Arabia and Kuwait - Security Council support actions to curb Hussein's aggression vs early US diplomatic ambiguity. Economic Causes Iraq's economy was crippled by Iran-Iraq war and most expenditure has been on weaponary and the military forces, Kuwaiti and Saudi Oil would be the answer, cornering the Middle East Oil supplies. Iraqi occupation of Kuwait is an economic disaster for the west - Operation Desert Shield is first step to securing Sauid Oil supplies. Control over the strait of Hormuz and the Iraqi - Kuwait - Persian Gulf oil route is crucial for Hussein. Social Causes Historical precedent Arab resent - at the influence of the 'infidel' west in the Middle East - back to time of Lionheart and the Crusades. Mandate system constructed an artificial iraqi social structure, Kurds vs Shia vs Sh'ite. Constant ethnic turmoil and Hussein needs a uniting cause. Dreams of being a latterday Nebuchanezzer. Treatment of Kuwaiti's under Hussein's occupation caused international outcry. Something had to be done - threat to Saudi border. UN Coalition of Internation cooperation - Social intiative was with them. 250,00 with 30,000 Arab soldiers. Civil Wars: Case Studies to consider:
Spanish Civil War
Chinese Civil War

Causation is split down into three broad categories: Economic, Social and Political Causes. Further dividing (short vs long term)

Notes on historiography are added where necessary. the Spanish Civil War Political Causes Spanish Backwardness - A dispirate and divided country which a central government of democratic make up would struggle to control, factions then develop. The Fall of the Monarchy - Right vs Left on a collision course over reform and social changes. 1936 - Election returns the Left wing socialists for a second time in six years, the rightists refuse to yield and rise up in Madrid. Economic Causes Great Depression after the Wall Street Crash - Hits Spanish economy which is badly structured, backward and huge disparities in wealth and classes. 1930-33: Socialists bring in sweeping reform and restructure economy, then 1933-36 the rightists reverse all changes further damaging the economy. Social Causes Spanish Catholic Church are traditionalists and object to social freedoms introduced by the Socialists. Existing divides across all society are opened up, in Navy: officers rebel, and loyal sailors mutiny for example. Industrialisation worsens disparities, with aristocratic monoply extending into industrial business. Chinese Civil War (Second) Political Causes Weakness of the GMD during the Nanjing decade - bureaucractic, corrupt and lacking popular support. Since end of imperial China, political upheaval with no stability and power battles. War lords and regional differences. Political Outfall of the Japanese invasion - Corruption worsened and GMD cut off from traditional power base. CCP offer Political socialist alternative, and conditions lead to political polarisation. Economic Causes Chinese economy is backward and industrialisation effects a tiny part of the country, disparities since the time of the emperor unresolved. GMD Mismanagement of economy fuelling hyper inflation because of printing money. Cost of War - Chinese economy ruined by war with abject poverty increasing support for Communist CCP. Social Causes Social hierarchy freed from imperial ties, is uncontrollable and War lords and gangs are rife, government cannot control the periphery, regular internal raids on different owners territories. GMD fail to relate to students, intellectuals or rural peasant workers, not supporting them and losing them to the CCP. The Civil War becomes about ideology and class divides. CCP support base widens. GMD are also harsh when dealing with these groups. Regional Differences - Regions are fiercely independent of each other and are hard to control by a central gov. Or the Rise of Franco... Political, Economic, Internal and external social causes - ie ideology, religion, nationalism.
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