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Building Intercultural Competence (CTU Summer 2015)
Transcript of Building Intercultural Competence (CTU Summer 2015)
Intercultural Communication Skills
in Pastoral Settings
Obstacles That Impede
Effective Intercultural Relations
Frame Issues of Diversity Theologically in Terms of
the Church's Identity
and Mission to Evangelize
& How It Works
What is Culture?
Fostering Ecclesial Integration
Rather Than Assimilation
in Church Settings
What is Evangelization?
What Are the Challenges of the
in the United States?
The New Evangelization in a Society & Church
of Many Cultures
A Theology for Intercultural Ministry
I. Collectivism Versus Individualism
2. Hierarchy Versus Equality
3. Low Tolerance of Ambiguity Versus High Tolerance of Ambiguity
5. Lived-Experience Versus Abstract Time Orientation
4. A Masculine Versus
a Feminine Understanding
of Gender Roles
Parameters of Interacting
with Other Cultures
The "Face" of Groups
Conducting Meetings with Differing Cultures
The Dynamics of Prejudice & Stereotypes
5 Principles for Achieving Ecclesial Integration and Inclusion
Ricky Manalo, CSP
Ability to articulate an understanding of the Church's mission and identity in terms of evangelization and its relation to the New Evangelization
Familiarity with the basic elements of evangelization in terms of "four pillars" and examples of how evangelization engages individuals and cultures in today's world
A grasp of the theological foundations for the Church's mission to evangelize in Scripture, tradition, and contemporary Church teaching
1. To better understand the meaning and purpose of both evangelization and the New Evangelization
2. To examine the U.S. prevailing culture in light of the New Evangelization
3. To explore key ethnic and cultural groups in the Church as well as the opportunities and challenges these present for the New Evangelization
4. To understand the meaning of inculturation, or evangelization of cultures
A personal encounter
with Jesus Christ
Transformation of social,
economic, and political order
in light of gospel values of life
and human dignity
1. To familiarize participants with the basic
concepts that underlie intercultural competence: concepts of culture; dimensions of interculturality (knowledge, skills, and attitudes); and different indices for understanding culture
2. To develop the communication skills needed to function in different kinds of culture
Define culture and identify ways in which culture influences communication
Understand how cultures respond differently to similar situations
Create a framework of ideas that can be applied to understanding the major concepts of intercultural communication
1. Cultures have ideas &
ways of expressing them
2. Cultures have behaviors
3. Cultures have
WHAT IS INTERCULTURAL
Knowledge of more than one perspective on things
knowledge of different interpretations of the same cultural reality
knowledge of more than one's first language
Ability to empathize
Ability to tolerate ambiguity
Ability to adapt communication and behavior
Openness to others and other cultures
Wanting to learn and engage other cultures
Understanding intercultural interaction as a way of life, not a problem to be solved
The capacity to to communicate, relate, and work across cultural boundaries
1. To introduce participants to how groups from collectivist and individualist perspectives see themselves and how they view groups constituted differently from themselves
2. To indicate how these different perceptions affect meetings where groups from different perspectives need to interact
3. To outline some of the cultural features that play into intergroup conflict and how these features might be addressed
Develop practical knowledge about intercultural communications in pastoral settings
Increase awareness of how to communicate effectively with persons and groups in cultures other than one's own
Use modes of communication that are proper to the culture being addressed
Lead, discuss, and make decisions using culturally appropriate processes with intercultural groups
Apply basic skills in conflict resolution
Respectful Communication & Mutual Invitation
Collectivist Styles of Meetings & Decision Making
Individualist Styles of Meeting & Decision Making
Collectivist Approaches to Conflict
Dealing with Conflicts
in the Community
Individualist Approaches to Conflict
Spirituality for Intercultural Ministry
& Inclusion versus Assimilation
The Process for Ecclesial Integration
Intergenerational Communication Among Immigrant Communities
1. To experience a spirituality that supports intercultural ministry and reconciliation
2. To focus on the developmental process for ecclesial integration and inclusion, specifically in diverse parish settings, including competencies for
3. To identify models for effective pastoral responses, principles, and practices that shape fruitful ministry in intercultural settings
Demonstrate a clear understanding of the principle of ecclesial integration versus assimilation
Identify different parish models in the context of cultural diversity and a spirituality of mission and reconciliation
Apply the developmental process of ecclesial integration and its five principles to one's own parish or Catholic institution
1. To identify the processes of in-group and out-group perception and behavior
2. To examine the ways we view the "other"
3. To explore the dynamics of racism and better understand its effects on its victims
4. To learn how to positively influence the healthy dynamics of living together in community
Increased awareness of the presence of racism in intercultural relationships and how it affects those relationships
Increased knowledge and understanding of racism
Renewed willingness to confront one's own experience of racism
Acknowledged and ownership of one's feelings about racism
Strengthened resolve to find one's voice to speak out against racism
Recognize & affirm cultural, linguistic, & racial differences as a gift from God, not a problem to be solved.
Promote the formation of cultural specific ministries, parish groups, and apostolic movements as a means for conversion & community building
Avoid the temptation to expect others to assimilate into a one-size-fits-all group, program, or activity
Articulate a Vision
of Ministry Based on Ecclesial Integration
Be aware of
Use the concept of inculturation
of the Gospel
Be willing to be a bridge-builder rather than a gate-keeper
Avoid the tendency
to see your culture
as better or more valuable than the cultures of others
Commit to the spirit
of mission of
the New Evangelization
& its ongoing transformation of all cultures by gospel values
Foster the Inculturation of the Gospel in All Cultures
First, listen to and welcome the unique perspectives of the diverse parishioners you are trying to reach.
Include them - from the beginning - in the development of plans, programs, and activities.
Avoid planning for others and judging them when they don't show up to your activity.
Plan With the People,
Not For the People
Recognize the unique experiences, needs,
& aspirations of each cultural/ethnic community
in your parish
Understand that the existence of more than one cultural group
in your parish
is a blessing
Promote the formation of culturally specific groups & apostolic
Avoid the perception that allowing the formation of culturally specific groups creates division or separation
Commit to creating welcoming spaces for all Catholic people living in your parish
BROADEN YOUR UNDERSTANDING OF MINISTRY GROUPS, PROGRAMS,
& CAST A BIGGER NET
Understand the way in which people from different cultures view leadership, organize themselves, & make decisions
Identify indigenous leaders & mentor them into leadership positions in ministry within their own cultural/ethnic community and in the parish as a whole
Avoid a mentality of scarcity - "there is not enough for everyone" - and foster a vision of mission and growth that generates more resources & abundance for all.
EMPOWER PEOPLE FROM DIFFERENT CULTURES & ETHNICITIES INTO LEADERSHIP POSITIONS
The Methodology of
"The Church in America"
ORGANIZE BY DEVELOPING MINISTRIES & MINISTERS
BUILDING RELATIONSHIPS ACROSS CULTURES & MINISTRIES
CHAMPION LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT & FORMATION
OPEN WIDE THE DOORS TO THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS
REACH OUT & MEET
& MAKE PEOPLE FEEL AT HOME
STRENGTHEN A SENSE OF OWNERSHIP
SOW & REAP FULL OWNERSHIP
ACHIEVE FULL COMMITMENT TO THE MISSION OF THE PARISH
The power in the group is diffuse & sometimes hard to locate
Often unspoken rules govern things
Authority is earned
Sanctions & rewards are based on one's performance
Status is often seen as something earned
Communication is more direct: "Low Context Cultures"
Power is unevenly distributed; inequality is presumed
Authority is inherited
Everyone in the society knows his or her place in the hierarchy.
Communication between those who are lower on the power scale & those who are higher is often indirect in nature
"High Context Cultures"
Charts the relative importance of rules & degree of causality (what needs to be explained and what does not need to be explained)
How much ambiguity or uncertainty is allowed in a society?
Every event (especially unfortunate ones) needs an explanation
Rules for behavior are explicit & leave little room for interpretation or for exceptions
People in such cultures work hard to avoid any uncertainty
Fewer explicit rules
Rules can be interpreted in a generous way
A cause does not need to be assigned to every single thing that happens
How relatively clear and distinct gender roles are intended to be
Gender roles are not clearly defined and tend to overlap
Women & men have an equal role in the public sphere & they often share responsibility in care the household & the children
Decisions are made mutually
Gender roles are distinct and clearly allocated
Men are in charge in the public sphere, make decisions, and protect women; expected to be achievers and providers for their families
Women are kept in the private or home sphere, where they care for the children and the elderly
Women are expected to be nurturing
Time is subjugated to the needs of the community and fostering relationships in the community
Emphasis is on the past and present
Upholding traditions & fulfilling social obligations have priority over thinking about the future
Meeting never begins in such cultures until everyone has arrived and each person has had the chance to greet everyone else and inquire about their families
Long-term planning is not a priority
Short term: places an emphasis on maintaining human relationships
Covers the meaning of time in different communities
How time affects interaction
What values are privileged in differing understandings of time
LIVED EXPERIENCE & SHORT-TERM APPROACHES TO TIME
Time is a value ("time is money")
Social interactions are ordered to the requirements & demands of time
Meetings focus on the tasks to be accomplished more than the enhancement of human relationships
While emphasis is on the present, such cultures especially concentrate on the future
Abstract ideas and long-term goals are valued, and their achievement is calculated and calibrated into units of time
Human relationships support these possibilities but are secondary
Thus, meetings begin and end within a certain time segment, & what needs to be done is tailored to fit within that segment
Emphasis is on the achievement of objectives
ABSTRACT AND LONG-TERM APPROACHES TO TIME
Face is the public image of a group, or how a group wants others - individuals or groups - to see it. This involves two projects:
(1) presenting our face in the way we want others to perceive and interact with us, and
(2) doing what we need to do within our own group to support that face.
Typically more task-oriented
Meetings are called for a purpose & a clear agenda is established ahead of time
Meetings begin & end at prescribed times
If the work of the meeting is finished early, so much the better
Clear rules for how to proceed
Task of Moderator: keep participants on task & follow the rules
Everyone is encouraged to speak to the issue within the time frame allotted
Ultimately, a vote is taken, with the majority determining the outcome
Prizes the maintenance of good relationships among the participants over the completion of the task
Setting a task too quickly can damage relationships for future meetings
The meeting cannot start until everyone has had a chance to greet everyone else; when a sense of harmony is in place, the meeting can get under way
Meetings are preferably not ended until harmony is again re-established; this may require some eating and drinking together
Elders of the respective groups must each first address the issue before it can be opened for debate
Setting time limits on elders' speaking damages face
The task of the moderator of the meeting is to ensure that the face of the various groups is honored before proceeding with debate.
In debate, individuals will speak, but rarely will a member of a group (especially if young) contradict directly anything the elder has said
If a contrary point is to be made, it must be done in a way that reinforces what the elder has said even as a slightly different point is made; Elders must be given a chance to respond and affirm what a member has said so as to show that what appears to be a contrary idea really is not so
In some instances, younger members of the group are expected not to speak at all
If the moderator wants individuals to ask questions, it is best be done by letting the groups gather to discuss the matter among themselves and then letting each group appoint a spokesperson who will present the questions to the larger group
Individuals often will not feel free to speak independently of the group
The purpose of the Church is to evangelize. "The Church has received from the apostles Christ's solemn command to proclaim the truth which saves, and it must carry it to the very ends of the earth" (Lumen Gentium, no. 17). To evangelize means literally to "spread the Good News." At the heart of that message is the encounter with Jesus Christ and the salvation he rings to the world. From that encounter comes incorporation into the Body of Christ, which is the Church. The Church's very nature is missionary - that is, to share this message with the entire world. Thus, missionary activity is not something left solely to the professional foreign missionary: it is a responsibility incumbent on all believers.
Enables individuals to bring their own talents to bear on issue the community is facing
"Good leaders" demonstrate competence (by training and education) and show their skills in bringing people together to carry out necessary tasks
Able to break down complex issues into discreet tasks and develop timetable for meeting them
Skills in planning & setting goals & objectives are especially prized
Leaders may be chosen based on their rank and status within the community
Leadership is more about trustworthiness than specific skills
People will be respected as good leaders if they come from a family that has shown a capacity to keep a community together and promote harmonious relationships
In facing complex tasks, the leader who brings the community along and keeps the community together is more important than a detailed plan
Plans may be articulated, but their purpose is often more to impress outsiders with the competence of the group than to provide a detailed guide of how to get to the desired end
Often frame conflict in terms of the issues at stake
The concern in conflict is to resolve the issue
The mode of communication: direct
May rely on a strategy of dominating the other in order to win
In some circumstances, these approaches will adopt a policy of compromise, with the intention of later returning to the conflict when conditions are more favorable for winning
Bringing a community together where individualists and collectivist approaches are in play at the same time can be difficult. Because conflict can involve both issues and relationships, there is a likelihood that strategies will veer back and forth between these two foci.
In addition, contextual issues can be at stake as well. Sometimes in immigrant and minority communities, church settings may be the only places where a group's autonomy and competence face has a chance of being respected. What is happening to the immigrant or minority group outside the church circle in everyday life will constantly invade disputes within the church. This is most evident where two groups are struggling
for control in the same parish - be it over Mass schedules, use of space,
or whose saints and Madonnas will be honored. Hence, keeping external context, issues, and relationships in mind is an important component of successful conflict resolution.
LITURGY IN A CULTURALLY DIVERSE COMMUNITY: A GUIDE TOWARDS UNDERSTANDING
Acknowledge Cultural Approaches & Biases to Music
Progression of Intercultural Integration:
EMERGENT MUSICAL FORMS & STYLES
STROPHIC HYMNS &
ELISIONS AND/OR SYNALEPHA
for Choosing Music
Building Relationships Between Music Ministers
Second & Third
Generations of Music Making
Between Distinct Musical Worlds
Develop & Nurture
Core Group of Cultural Leaders
The Liturgical Year & "Unity Choir"
Litanies & Acclamations
Gregorian Chant & Latin
BILINGUAL & MULTILINGUAL REPERTOIRE
TRANSLATED HYMNS & SONGS
Call & Responses
Collectivist approaches may frame the conflict not in terms of issues, but relationships - especially regarding group face - are always key in the strategies involved.
The concern in the conflict is to maintain good group face.
Because hierarchical patterns of organization are in place, the preferred mode of communication is indirect rather than direct.
There is a tendency to choose strategies of avoidance rather than risk of face. If avoidance is not possible, obliging the other party will be an alternative.
The conflict is then not resolved but allowed to continue, albeit implicitly and indirectly, so that it makes resolved relationships difficult to achieve.
"Integration is not to be confused with assimilation. Through the policy of assimilation, new immigrants are forced to give up their language, culture, values, and traditions . . . By [ecclesial] integration we mean that [all cultural/ethnic communities] are to be welcomed to our church institutions at all levels. They are to be served in their language when possible, and their cultural values and religious traditions are to be respected. Beyond that, we must work toward mutual enrichment through interaction among all our cultures."
National Pastoral Plan for Hispanic Ministry (1987, no. 4)
Those who immigrate in adulthood
Life patterns & language skills already in place
Arrive as infants or children and those who are born in the new country
Developmental patterns & language capacity are shaped by the new country more than those of the 1st generation
Caught between world of parents and the culture(s) of the land they are growing up
Cultural Values Clash
Secretariat of Cultural Diversity
in the Church
INDIVIDUALIST APPROACHES TO CONFLICT
Collectivist Approaches to Conflict
In-Group: made up of people we know and trust and people we deem to be most like us
Out-Group: Those we do not know and those who seem different from ourselves
THE 3 CULTURAL
WHO AM I? WHO ARE WE?
Who Am I?
Who Are We?
1. Describe your experience when you were asked to draw your identity.
2. Describe your experience when someone was describing your drawing and you were not allowed to say anything?
3. Describe your experience when you were asked to describe the identity of the other person?
The Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy (1963)
Liturgy as Source and Summit of Church Life (no. 10)
#37: The Church does not wish to impose a rigid uniformity; respect and foster the genius and talents of the various races and peoples
#38: Revision of Liturgical Books, legitimate adaptations, especially mission lands; preservation of substantial unity of the Roman rite
#39: Competent ecclesial authority regulates adaptations
#40: “In some places and circumstances, however, an even more radical adaptation of the liturgy is needed . . .”
The Pastoral Constitution
on the Church
in the Modern World (1965)
On the Mission Activity
of the Church (1965)
GAUDIUM ET SPES
No. 42: "[the Church] is bound to no particular form of human culture, nor to any political, economic or social system ..."
Liturgy & the Paschal Mystery
(Apostolic Exhortation, 1979): First mentioning of "inculturaiton" in official papal document.
(Encyclical, 1985):"Double Movement":
1) inserting Gospel into the culture; a
2) "bringing the same human culture into the life
of the church"
Extraordinary Synod of Bishops
(1985): synodal definition; double movement: "intimate transformation of the authentic cultural values by their integration into Christianity and the rooting of Christianity in various human cultures"
Vicesimus Quintus Annus
(Apostolic Letter,1988):25th Anniversary of SC; double movement: insertion of the liturgy into culture entails acceptance of cultural meanings "that can be combined with the true and genuine horizon of the liturgy" (V; K. Martin, 82).
(Encyclical, 1990):double movement: intimate transfiguration of the true goods of human culture through the reception itself of those goods into Christianity and likewise, the insertion of the name of Christian into various cultures"
John Paul II & Inculturation