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A2 Communication and culture ... revision

revision on theorists.. key concepts...contrasting spaces and places... objects of desire...
by

Nicola McCreedy

on 8 December 2012

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Transcript of A2 Communication and culture ... revision

A2 Theoretical approaches Architecture Post-modernism Liberalism Feminism Marxism Postman believes America is a society characterized by glut of information and deification, it is no longer a culture that uses "tools" but has become a technopoly a society ordered around the information generation, effects of this he suggests traditional cultural gatekeepers (schools, churches etc...) have lost their purchase. he says that new communications technologies " alter the structure of our interests: the things we think about, they alter the character of our symbols: the things we think about: and they alter the nature of the community: the arena in which thoughts develop", for instance what would society today be without technology it is everywhere... mobile phones are a good example of technology but whether these are good or bad are interpretative, personally my use is limited to internet, music player and my e reader. Postman also stresses for schools he says "orality stresses group learning, cooperation, and a sense of social responsibility" where print ( a higher form upon which he considers to be important within educational areas) stresses individualized learning, competition and personal autonomy, he argues ICT upsets this balance that encourages students to adopt an egocentric orientation to the world. Marshall McLuhan Marc Prensky Technological determinist s Neil Postman Prensky is a more positive technological determinist when compared to Postman, he considers the problem not within technology itself but rather compares two different types: the digital immigrants and the digital natives, and states the problem is within digital immigrants being " instructors who speak an OUTDATED language (that of the pre-digital age) and are struggling to teach a population that speaks an entirely new language", and says biased opinions from the view of that it is these digital immigrants (those who were not born into technology but have rather assimilated themselves within it) think learning can't/shouldn't be fun. McLuhan's view on electronic technology is that it has become an extension of our senses, placing importance in particularly on sight and sound he uses this visual descriptive image to describe this - the telephone and the radio has become a long distance ear as the television and computer extend the eye by projecting further than our biological range of vision and hearing. He suggests this has happened through the rapidity of communication through electric media which echoes the speed of the senses. This through Mcluhan's eyes has linked us intrinsically with the rest of the world with his quote upon the "global village" we are connected instantaneously with others such as events that take place thousands of miles away this he says places a responsibility on us that we have to be a substancial bearer of responsibility within this global village or in other words awareness makes us responsible for action, but it's not covered by McLuhan on whether this actually works instead of just feeling guilty and still not doing any thing productive. Marxism is an economic and sociopolitical worldview and method of socioeconomic inquiry based upon a materialist interpretation of historical development, a dialectical view of social change, and an analysis of class-relations within society and their application in the analysis and critique of the development of capitalism. In the mid-to-late 19th century, the intellectual development of Marxism was pioneered by two German philosophers, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Marxist analysis and methodologies have influenced multiple political ideologies and social movements throughout history. Marxism encompasses an economic theory, a sociological theory, a philosophical method and a revolutionary view of social change.[1] There is no one definitive Marxist theory; Marxist analysis has been applied to a variety of different subjects and has been modified during the course of its development so that there are multiple Marxist theories.[2]

Marxism is based on a materialist understanding of societal development, taking at its starting point the necessary economic activities required by human society to provide for its material needs. The form of economic organization, or mode of production, is understood to be the basis from which the majority of other social phenomena — including social relations, political and legal systems, morality and ideology — arise (or at the least by which they are greatly influenced). These social relations form the superstructure, for which the economic system forms the base. As the forces of production (most notably technology) improve, existing forms of social organization become inefficient and stifle further progress. These inefficiencies manifest themselves as social contradictions in the form of class struggle.[3]

According to Marxist analysis, class conflict within capitalism arises due to intensifying contradictions between highly-productive mechanized and socialized production performed by the proletariat, and private ownership and private appropriation of the surplus product in the form of surplus value (profit) by a small minority of private owners called the bourgeoisie. As the contradiction becomes apparent to the proletariat, social unrest between the two antagonistic classes intensifies, culminating in a social revolution. The eventual long-term outcome of this revolution would be the establishment of socialism - a socioeconomic system based on cooperative ownership of the means of production, distribution based on one's contribution, and production organized directly for use. Karl Marx hypothesized that, as the productive forces and technology continued to advance, socialism would eventually give way to a communist stage of social development. Communism would be a classless, stateless, moneyless society based on common ownership and the principle of "From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs". (wikipedia) Places Postman in Amusing ourselves to death declares how technology affects life in modern times, although he is in particular concerned with television and it's affects. Neil Postman is a negative technological determinist, he states that the problems with television are that- 1 it cannot communicate an accurate relative context of a particular substance within education for example trying to teach others the use of smoke signals through the medium of television... it just would not work, and 2. Postman considers the modern use of television with regard to politics, take for instance this clip on a serious debate between politicians that used to be "real" and not performed... Marc Prensky states that a fundamental cause in the decline of education is technology, which he says for the digital natives (those born into the technological age) is because technology has become ubiquitous that it has changed the structure of their brains.
He says this positively as though it is improving essentially the structure of education and describes his ideal future education system to be “edutainment”. Summary Promotes Laziness with teaching, not all subjects can be taught with technology it would question the entire content that is then communicated (Neil Postman), and Prensky has a limited assumption towards “digital immigrants” as not wanting to change whereas it would be impossible for the “digital natives” to change yet digital immigrants have also gone through processes of education which may seem outdated but are an essential part of their brain structure?
As technology grows more and more important in society, the gap between digital natives and immigrants becomes smaller. This means that teachers do, or at least will understand their students.
Not only assuming that people can change will have serious repercussions to why these particular people have to change, and why is it necessary to conjoin the two will education and entertainment work intrinsically together I do not think so and neither does the previous work that has tried to attempt this....
He starts to describe that technology causes an overall decline in education which negates his argument as a positive technological determinist. Critique’s The digital Immigrant “accent”: printing e-mails, the need to print out documentation to edit it, bringing people into a room to recommend a particular website.
The digital Native “accent”: graphics before text, multitask, games to more serious work, Recommending websites through the use of URL’s, Editing documentation on screen.... Illustrations Prensky highlights the difficulties of those who may be unable to change - the digital natives as opposed to those who do not want to change - the digital immigrants.
Example that he provides is what he considers an outdated method of teaching “I went to a highly ranked college where all the professors come from MIT, But all they did was read from there textbooks. I quit”- this supports the idea of teaching methods being more “old-school” rather than accepting that students are different within the way they learn. He also states his own preference for teaching “digital natives” is to invent computer games to do the job, even for serious content. By Ben and Nicola ....... Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants The focus is not on the actual debate, nor the consequences nor any other considerable important aspect, it is used as entertainment and then mocked, maybe Postman is correct in stating culture death is or has happened although this might be a strong view that does not relate well with "actual" life? Technology-this looks at how technology has shaped and changed a specific subject (place, person, organization etc...) it is concerned with the notions upon whether a subject would continue to function without it as well as if technology can be used as a tool to make a subject greater than what it is. e.g. politicians using the television to get a message across, and students within a learning environment such as school concerning themselves with how technology can be used to help them better themselves both socially and an educational manner.
It could be argued that technology plays a crucial role in contemporary communication and culture some have even referred to it as a techno-culture because of the relationship between modern culture.
A view upon which technology is analyzed is through technological determinism, whereas it is believed that 'technological developments are a primary cause of social change and perceptions'. Advocates of the Social Construction Of Technology argue that technology does not determine human action, it is shaped by human action, and that technology cannot be understood without knowing how technology is embedded within it's social context (SCOT is a response to technological determinism and is also called technological constructivism).
Technology can be linked to Marxism in the sense that there is an underlying notion that individuals will develop a self-consciousness through the development of technology- it is said that it will be used to compare themselves to people in different circumstances which inferres the dominant classes who will ultimately have the resources and the money to invest and buy into better technologies which could then be used to continue their strangle-hold on the lower classes, e.g. Xfactor, bigbrother etc... Ideology- is a set of ideas which constitute one's goals, expectations and actions, which can be thought of as a comprehensive vision ( a way of looking at things-compare worldview) which could be different philosophical views, or a set of ideas proposed by the dominant class of a society to all members of this society- a received consciousness-product of socialization. The main purpose of an ideology is to offer either a change within society, or adherence to a set of ideals where conformity already exists, ideologies are systems of abstract thought applied to public matters and thus make the concept central to politics. Ideologies such as Marxism it shows the dominant ideology, where the ruling class determine the superstructure and the nature of the justifying ideology- whereby actions are rendered feasible because the ruling-class control the means of production e.g. feudal modes of production have a prominent aspect being religious ideology, but compared to ideologies such as liberalism and social democracy are the more prominent ideologies in a capitalist society. Which shows the great importance of the ideology justifying a society: it politically confuses the alienated groups of society via false consciousness, such as in the case of commodity fetishism - the belief that value if inherent within a commodity rather than from an external source via labor. Marcuse-
"Technology as such cannot be isolated from the use to which it is put:the technological society is a system of domination".
"Advanced industrial society becomes richer, bigger, and better as it perpetuates the danger (of the destruction of humanity). The defense structure makes life easier for a greater number of people and extends mans' mastery of nature (via technology). Under these circumstances, out mass media have little difficulty in selling particular interests as those of sensible men.- and yet this society is irrational as a whole. It's productivity is destructive of the free development of human needs and faculties".
Marcuse is trying to convey in One dimensional man that the advancement of industrialized societies through technology has enabled them to eliminate conflict by assimilating all those who in earlier forms of social order provided either voices or forces of dissent, technology he says does this by creating affluence-freedom from material want is from Marx and Marcuse's view the precondition of other freedoms upon which has been transformed into agency for producing servitude (man become passive instruments of the dominating system because of the satisfaction of fulfilling "false needs"). False needs being "those which are superimposed upon the individual by particular social interests in his repression", he says that the fulfillment of these false needs subdue the masses as though they were similar to those in a higher class e.g. looking similar to that of a successful person will make someone feel as though the distinction between the classes is blurred, which Marcuse says is conditioned not by the media, but through being reinforced in the media. Critisms
* In One Dimensional Man he seems to exclude himself of the plight he says is among others within the passivity of the masses due to fulfillment of false needs, what excludes him from this, and it is presumptuous to assume what is deemed as a false need, he also fails to provide a secure set of identity of individuals and meanings a post-modernist would argue against this saying that since nothing exists outside of the current discourse Marxism is rendered almost unnecessary. Quotes
Of all the varieties of virtues, liberalism is the most beloved.
Aristotle
Liberalism is totalitarianism with a human face.
Thomas Sowell

http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/liberalism.html#MXzG0YGBFsMwSsIv.99 Liberalism (from the Latin liberalis)[1] is a political philosophy or worldview founded on the ideas of liberty and equality.[2] Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but generally they support ideas such as free and fair elections, civil rights, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, free trade, and a right to life, liberty, and property.[3][4][5][6][7]

Liberalism first became a distinct political movement during the Age of Enlightenment, when it became popular among philosophers and economists in the Western world. Liberalism rejected the notions, common at the time, of hereditary privilege, state religion, absolute monarchy, and the Divine Right of Kings. The early liberal thinker John Locke is often credited with founding liberalism as a distinct philosophical tradition. Locke argued that each man has a natural right to life, liberty and property[8] and according to the social contract governments must not violate these rights. Liberals opposed traditional conservatism and sought to replace absolutism in government with democracy and the rule of law.

The revolutionaries in the American Revolution, the French Revolution and other liberal revolutions from that time used liberal philosophy to justify the armed overthrow of what they saw as tyrannical rule. The nineteenth century saw liberal governments established in nations across Europe, Spanish America, and North America.[9]

During the beginning of the twentieth century some countries adopted totalitarian, non-liberal regimes, such as Fascism, Nazism and Communism. In other countries classical liberalism became less popular and gave way to social democracy[10] and social liberalism.[11][12] According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, "In the United States liberalism is associated with the welfare-state policies of the New Deal program of the Democratic administration of Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt, whereas in Europe it is more commonly associated with a commitment to limited government and laissez-faire economic policies."[13]

The term market liberalism is used in two distinct meanings.

Especially in the United States, the term is often used as a synonym to classical liberalism.[1][2] In this sense, market liberalism depicts a political ideology, combining free market economy with personal liberty and human rights, in contrast to social liberalism, which, while also supporting personal liberty and human rights, supports a more mixed economy with state produced public services.

In Europe and elsewhere, the term market liberalism is often used as a synonym to economic liberalism,[3] depicting a policy supporting the economic aspects of liberalism, without necessarily including the political aspects of liberalism.


Wikipedia Feminism is a collection of movements and ideologies aimed at defining, establishing, and defending equal political, economic, and social rights for women.[1][2] This includes seeking to establish equal opportunities for women in education and employment. A feminist is "an advocate or supporter of the rights and equality of women".[3]

Feminist theory, which emerged from these feminist movements, aims to understand the nature of gender inequality by examining women's social roles and lived experience; it has developed theories in a variety of disciplines in order to respond to issues such as the social construction of sex and gender.[4][5] Some of the earlier forms of feminism have been criticized for taking into account only white, middle-class, educated perspectives. This led to the creation of ethnically specific or multiculturalist forms of feminism.[6]

Feminist activists campaign for women's rights – such as in contract law, property, and voting – while also promoting bodily integrity, autonomy, and reproductive rights for women. Feminist campaigns have changed societies, particularly in the West, by achieving women's suffrage, gender neutrality in English, equal pay for women, reproductive rights for women (including access to contraceptives and abortion), and the right to enter into contracts and own property.[7][8] Feminists have worked to protect women and girls from domestic violence, sexual harassment, and sexual assault.[9][10][11] They have also advocated for workplace rights, including maternity leave, and against forms of discrimination against women.[7][8][12] Feminism is mainly focused on women's issues, but because feminism seeks gender equality, some feminists argue that men's liberation is a necessary part of feminism, and that men are also harmed by sexism and gender roles.
Wikipedia Materialist ideologiesRosemary Hennessy and Chrys Ingraham say that materialist feminisms grew out of western marxist thought and have inspired a number of different (but overlapping) movements, all of which are involved in a critique of capitalism and are focussed on ideology's relationship to women.[25] Marxist feminism argues that capitalism is the root cause of women's oppression, and that discrimination against women in domestic life and employment is an effect of capitalist ideologies.[26] Socialist feminism distinguishes itself from Marxist feminism by arguing that women's liberation can only be achieved by working to end both the economic and cultural sources of women's oppression.[27] Anarcha-feminists believe that class struggle and anarchy against the state[28] require struggling against patriarchy, which comes from involuntary hierarchy.

Black and postcolonial ideologiesSara Ahmed argues that Black and Postcolonial feminisms pose a challenge "to some of the organizing premises of Western feminist thought."[29] During much of its history, feminist movements and theoretical developments were led predominantly by middle-class white women from Western Europe and North America.[30][31][32] However women of other races have proposed alternative feminisms.[31] This trend accelerated in the 1960s with the civil rights movement in the United States and the collapse of European colonialism in Africa, the Caribbean, parts of Latin America, and Southeast Asia. Since that time, women in developing nations and former colonies and who are of colour or various ethnicities or living in poverty have proposed additional feminisms.[32] Womanism[33][34] emerged after early feminist movements were largely white and middle-class.[30] Postcolonial feminists argue that colonial oppression and Western feminism marginalized postcolonial women but did not turn them passive or voiceless.[6] Third-world feminism is closely related to postcolonial feminism.[32] These ideas also correspond with ideas in African feminism, motherism,[35] Stiwanism,[36] negofeminism,[37] femalism, transnational feminism, and Africana womanism.[38]

Social constructionist ideologiesIn the late twentieth century various feminists began to argue that gender roles are socially constructed,[39][40] and that it is impossible to generalize women's experiences across cultures and histories.[41] Post-structural feminism draws on the philosophies of post-structuralism and deconstruction in order to argue that the concept of gender is created socially and culturally through discourse.[42] Postmodern feminists also emphasize the social construction of gender and the discursive nature of reality,[39] however as Pamela Abbot et al. note, a postmodern approach to feminism highlights "the existence of multiple truths (rather than simply men and women's standpoints)."[43] Postmodernism is a general and wide-ranging term which is applied to many disciplines, including literature, art, economics, philosophy, architecture, fiction, and literary criticism. Postmodernism is largely a reaction to scientific or objective efforts to explain reality. Post-Modernism tends to be defined either as the period after modernism or as a 'condition' whereby established values are rapidly eroded by new technological advances and a general apprehension of what the future will bring. In essence, postmodernism is based on the position that reality is not mirrored in human understanding of it, but is rather constructed as the mind tries to understand its own personal reality. Postmodernism is therefore skeptical of explanations that claim to be valid for all groups, cultures, traditions, or races, and instead focuses on the relative truths of each person (i.e. postmodernism = relativism). In the postmodern understanding, interpretation is everything; reality only comes into being through our interpretations of what the world means to us individually. Postmodernism relies on concrete experience over abstract principles, arguing that the outcome of one's own experience will necessarily be fallible and relative, rather than certain or universal.

Postmodernism postulates that many, if not all, apparent realities are only social constructs and are therefore subject to change. It claims that there is no absolute truth and that the way people perceive the world is subjective and emphasises the role of language, power relations, and motivations in the formation of ideas and beliefs. In particular it attacks the use of sharp binary classifications such as male versus female, straight versus gay, white versus black, and imperial versus colonial; it holds realities to be plural and relative, and to be dependent on who the interested parties are and the nature of these interests. Postmodernist approaches therefore often consider the ways in which social dynamics, such as power and hierarchy, affect human conceptualizations of the world to have important effects on the way knowledge is constructed and used. Postmodernist thought often emphasizes constructivism, idealism, pluralism, relativism, and scepticism in its approaches to knowledge and understanding.

Wikipedia Spaces and Places- refers to the constructed environment which is any environment that has meanings constructed in a cultural context. Since the Mourne Mountains are naturally occurring I believe that there is no restriction on the people who can visit it, so there is no cultural elitism nor just entertainment for the working class, the Mourne Mountains are such that they unify different classes of people. Which is quite a powerful influence on “man”. Power The Mourne Mountains communicate to me a feeling of natural beauty. Although I cannot truly know of how they communicate with others, I find that since it has inspired many people to write novels, poems and songs that it must be inspirational and invokes idea’s that transpire into great works. Communication Denotation The Mourne mountains are situated within County Down in Northern Ireland , with the highest peak being Slieve Donard. They are a popular tourist attraction which is open to all kinds of people. They have been proposed at being Northern Irelands first national park, with some areas owned by the National Trust but have been disputed as some parts of the Mourne’s being private property with over 1000 farmers based in this and over issues such as house pricing, affect over local communities. The Mourne mountains The Mourne mountains have mystical connotations as not only was it the inspiration for CS Lewis’s, chronicles of Narnia book the lion the witch and the wardrobe, some of the actual names of the mountains mean mythical creatures, such as pollaphuca meaning hole of the fairies (or sprites) it also has vegetation that contribute to making herbal remedies which are not medically (nor scientifically verified as being something that can help) applied to help a person but are only thought that they can help with certain ailments such as that of St Johns wort aiding depressive illnesses. Connotations/Myth Value/culture The Mourne mountains have been featured in songs, poems and are of great value to those who habitually live in and around this area but also to those who visit it. Due to the songs and poems being classed within a popular/mass culture standing makes the inspiration that can come from the natural beauty of the Mourne mountains more accessible to other people. I value the Mourne Mountains as I am a bit of a nature freak, and enjoy adventure style activities including rock climbing, hiking Spaces and Places Expectance of familiarity but in that expectance was disappointing in difference Hot Fear Family Melbourne Childhood experiences Nature Mythology Interest Familiar Giant’s Causeway Expectance/ pre-concieved notions of fun Naive/childhood experience Different Fun Interest Amsterdam Gothic Architecture is a style of architecture which flourished during the high and late medieval period that evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture, originating in the 12th century and at the time known as 'the french style' until the 16th century with the term Gothic first appearing during the latter part of the renaissance.
*Characteristics of Gothic architecture are pointed arches, ribbed vaults, flying buttress and having figures (e.g. gargoyles etc..) set outside of niches.
Gothic architecture is common amongst great cathedrals, abbeys and churches of Europe and is commonly seen in lesser known castles, palaces, town halls, guild halls, universities etc...
Power is seen in Gothic architecture in it's use in a number of civic buildings , the characteristics of which lead to appealing to people's emotions, a number of ecclesiastical buildings remain from this period of which the smaller are often perceived as structures of architectural distinction whilst larger designs as that of churches are considered works of art, and listed with UNESCO as world heritage sites. Gothic revivals began in the mid 18th century England and continued, largely for ecclesiastical and university structures into the 20th century. Minimalist architecture- Queer theory is a field of post-structuralist critical theory that emerged in the early 1990s out of the fields of queer studies and Women's studies. Queer theory includes both queer readings of texts and the theorisation of 'queerness' itself. Heavily influenced by the work of Gloria Anzaldúa, Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, Judith Butler, and Lauren Berlant, queer theory builds both upon feminist challenges to the idea that gender is part of the essential self and upon gay/lesbian studies' close examination of the socially constructed nature of sexual acts and identities. Whereas gay/lesbian studies focused its inquiries into "natural" and "unnatural" behaviour with respect to homosexual behaviour, queer theory expands its focus to encompass any kind of sexual activity or identity that falls into normative and deviant categories. “...gender is a kind of imitation for which there is no original; in fact, it is a kind of imitation that produces the very notion of the original as an effect and consequence of the imitation itself...what they imitate is a phantasmic ideal of heterosexual identity...gay identities work neither to copy nor emulate heterosexuality, but rather, to expose heterosexuality as an incessant and panicked imitation of its own naturalized idealization. That heterosexuality is always in the act of elaborating itself is evidence that it is perpetually at risk, that it, that it 'knows' it's own possibility of becoming undone”
― Judith Butler Opinions on feminism Amsterdam-
*cultural capital of the Netherlands
*name derived from Amstreldamme
*17th century architecture-said to add to art history found here (dutch renaissance architecture found which followed Gothic architecture)
*Town hall designed by Jacob Van Campen, Lord Randenbrock, Daniel Stalpaert, and Pieter Post took 6 years to complete started construction in 1648, been described as the 8th wonder of the world.
*Van Gogh museum, the 8th top attraction in Amsterdam-tripadviser.co.uk, contains largest collection of Van Gogh's work, 200 paintings, 437 drawings, 31 prints- situated within the museum square, includes other 19th century art work... Giants Causeway
*most popular tourist attraction within Northern Ireland
*formed from hexagonal shaped basalt rocks which contribute to the MYTH of Giants Causeway- Fionn MacCumhail built a causeway into Scotland, got challenged by a much bigger giant Benadonner, so much bigger Fionn got scared and tried to think of a way out his wife came up with an idea to dress him up as a baby which Benadonner saw and was shocked at the size of the baby that he ran back to Scotland destroying the causeway as he went- similar basalt rocks are found within Fingal's cave in Scotland.
*Tops of the columns form stepping stones that lead from the cliff foot and disappear under the sea...
*Some of the rocks resemble strange objects related to the myth like in the shapes of giant boots...
*hosts a number of unusual plants - Sea Spleenworth, Hares footrefoil, Vernal Squill
*influence- artist Susanna Drury made watercolour paintings of Giants Causeway, and papers written by Bulkeley from Trinity College.- intellectual relations from nature-links with power....?
*Been named 4th greatest natural wonder in the UK. Renaissance architecture Renaissance period architecture succeeded Gothic architecture, said to reflect the matter of fact nature of people (dutch renaissance architecture).
similar to the nature of classical antiquity- influences from ancient roman architecture more commonly found in churches, cathedrals etc...
Designs are symmetrical, pro-portionate, geometric, orderly, have columns, pilasters, lintels, semi-circular, arches, hemisperical domes, niches (upon which different to that of gothic architecture figures are set in niches), and is aedicular. Also has influences from China/eastern/oriental style seen in the bulbous domes, my favorite being high renaissance style architecture.

An architect directly influenced by the Italian masters was Cornelis Floris de Vriendt, who designed the city hall of Antwerp, finished in 1564. The style sometimes known as "Antwerp Mannerism", keeping a similar overall structure to late-Gothic buildings, but with larger windows and much florid decoration and detailing in Renaissance styles, was widely influential across Northern Europe, for example in Elizabethan architecture, and is part of the wider movement of Northern Mannerism.
In the early 17th century Dutch Republic, Hendrick de Keyser played an important role in developing the Amsterdam Renaissance style, which has local characteristics including the prevalence of tall narrow town-houses, the "trapgevel" or Dutch gable and the employment of decorative triangular pediments over doors and windows in which the apex rises much more steeply than in most other Renaissance architecture, but in keeping with the profile of the gable. Carved stone details are often of low profile, in strapwork resembling leatherwork, a stylistic feature originating in the School of Fontainebleau. This feature was exported to England.[14][20] *the old Amsterdam town hall, dutch renaissance architecture, and high renaissance architecture.... Gothic architecture Art Deco architecture "Leaving aside present-day misuse and the inflation of the term, Minimalist architecture represents one of the most significant contributions to a review of a discipline, and an attempt to endow it with new foundations, and a way of life".
/Franco Bertoni
Many people think that Minimalist art or architecture is something cold, abstract and sterile. Instead Minimalism is not only art or architecture, actually is is an idea that does not elude existence. It is analoguous to the editing of a film, where there is an inherent concentration of form and experience. More than a subtraction, Minimalism is an inherent concentration of experience and pleasure./Michael Gabellini
Minimalism in architecture is a bit wide-ranging no two minimalist pieces look the same (in the architecture), the feel is open - no doors, big windows and bright colours and clean space is minimalist style...
Having initially been a reaction to the nightmare of the supermarket and excess, in its architectural form Minimalism is now finding goals that go further than the pure, simple motive of denunciation and instead move towards concrete attempts, albeit thinly scattered over time and space and in modest quantities, to introduce a life more imbued with spirituality, clarity and harmony. Art Deco succeeded the style of architecture Art Nouveau, whereas the main element of design in art noveau was craft motifs, art deco whilst incorporating this influence was heavily influenced from geometric shapes from the mechanical age.
Art Deco emphasizes geometric forms: spheres, polygons, rectangles, trapezoids, zigzags, chevrons, and sunburst motifs. Elements are often arranged in symmetrical patterns. Modern materials such as aluminum, stainless steel, Bakelite, chrome, and plastics are frequently used. Stained glass, inlays, and lacquer are also common. Colors tend to be vivid and high-contrasting. Art Deco's linear symmetry was a distinct departure from Art Noveau's style of flowing asymmetrical organic curves, it embraced influences from many different styles of the early 20th century including neo-classical, constructivism, cubism, modernism and futurism and drew inspiration from ancient egyptian and Aztec forms.
Starting in the 1920's in France, Art Deco was more widely popular about 10 years after it's arrival in the 30s.
The U.S. has many examples of art-deco architecture. New York, Chicago, and Detroit have many art deco buildings: The famous skyscrapers are the best-known, but notable art deco buildings can be found in various neighborhoods. Detroit's many examples of art-deco architecture include the Fisher and Guardian Buildings both of which are now National Historic Landmarks.

Art Deco- and - Art Noveau architecture Objects of Desire- refers to cultural products, items which are invested with meaning in a cultural context, goods of a consumer society items which we are encouraged to covet, to buy, to own and to cherish.
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