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Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis
Transcript of Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis
Why are the plants moving like this?
Now look at your handout
6CO + 6H 0 C H 0 + 6O
ATP is the energy currency of all cells, which means most of the reactions in the cell require ATP. When the energy is used by a reaction, ATP breaks up into ADP. In order to use the energy again, ADP must be changed back into ATP. This requires energy.
Aerobic respiration has three steps
each is important and could not happen without the one before it. The steps of cellular respiration are:
2.) Krebs cycle
3.) Oxidative phosphorylation.
Cellular respiration is what cells do to break up sugars into a form that the cell can use as energy.
This happens in all forms of life.
Cellular respiration releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules to create ATP, a chemical which the cell uses for energy.
All living things must have an endless supply of energy and matter. The transformation of this energy and matter within the body is called metabolism.
Regular cellular respiration is aerobic (requires oxygen), but some simple organisms can only do anaerobic (without oxygen) cellular respiration. The formula for aerobic cellular respiration is
C H O + 6O 6CO + 6H O + Energy (as ATP)
The word equation for this is:
Glucose (sugar) + 6Oxygen 6Carbon dioxide + 6Water + Energy (as ATP)
Glycolysis is the splitting
o create pyruvic acid
This breakdown results in the
net production of two molecules of ATP
(although the reaction produces a total of 4 ATP, it took 2 to create the reaction).
is one of the steps that
occurs in the cell's cytoplasm.
The Krebs Cycle
The next stage is the
takes place in the matrix of the mitochondria
During this stage, it
takes in Acetlyl CoA (made from glucose)
oxaloacetate to form citric acid (citrate)
, which is very
high in energy.
citric acid gradually loses that energy, partly as CO2 (a waste product)
and partly as
other chemicals which go on to produce ATP.
produced during glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle.
Most of the
energy locked in the original glucose molecule
electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation
takes place in the inner membrane of the mitochondria.
electrons are removed
molecule of glucose
, they carry with them
much of the energy
electron transport chain
network of electron-carrying proteins
located in the
inner membrane of the mitochondria.
transfer electrons from one to another
, down the chain.
electron transport chain
ATP can be made
(this is known as
). The electron transport chain is what is responsible for
producing the remaining 32-34 ATP
of cellular respiration.
plants and algae
which means they
get their food from the sun. Photosynthesis
is the process by which
light energy is converted to chemical energy.
Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts
. They contain
saclike membranes called thylakoids
, which are arranged in
internal membranes of chloroplasts.
convert light to energy to make ATP
surrounding the thylakoids is the
Here's how the entire process of
1.) First, the
molecules of chlorophyll
(which is a
found in almost all plants)
contained in the chloroplasts absorb energy in the form of sunlight.
Plants absorb water
through their roots and carbon dioxide from the air
(instead of taking in oxygen like all animals do). During the process of
energy received from the sun splits the absorbed water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen
released by the plant
, which is what makes
for all forms of life on Earth.
molecules of ATP are created from within the plant's cell.
Enzymes combine the hydrogen with carbon dioxide
to create a carbon compound that goes into the
process of producing glucose
, which all
plants use as fuel.
plants create more glucose than they really need
to survive, they
integrate that excess glucose into larger carbohydrate molecules called starch.
The starch molecules are
within the large
until the plant needs to later
break them down to get glucose for energy.
Why do leaves change color?
During winter, there is
not enough light or water for photosynthesis
. The trees will
live off the food they stored during the summer
; which means they begin to
When this happens, the
green chlorophyll disappears
from the leaves. As the bright green fades away, we
begin to see yellow and orange colors. Small amounts
of these colors have been in the leaves
, but we just
can't see them normally because they are covered up by the green chlorophyll.
bright reds and purples
we see in leaves are made mostly in the fall.
In some trees
, like maples,
glucose is trapped in the leaves after photosynthesis stops. Sunlight and the cool nights of autumn cause the leaves turn this glucose into a red color.
are then used to
reconstruct the oxaloacetate molecule,
waiting to get
another Acetyl CoA
to begin the whole cycle over again.