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Review

mid term
by

Ben Holmes

on 15 January 2013

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Transcript of Review

Joint Stock Company
Not managed by a King or Queen
Private investors pooling money,
couldn't lose more than invested.
JSC led to founding of Jamestown Jamestown,
1st lasting English
settlement in
Virginia John Rolfe The colony had early difficulties:
1. swampy location
2. disease
3. Native American raids
4. weather
By 1612, John Rolfe introduced tobacco and saved the Jamestown
from financial failure.
By 1619, the colonists formed their own assembly, the House of Burgesses to make their own laws House of Burgesses,
1st elected legislative
assembly in America.

meanwhile...back in England... King James was
persecuting Puritans who
wanted to break from the
Church of England.
So a break off group known as
Pilgrams, headed to Virginia But thier ship the "Mayflower" was
blown off course and landed in... Massachusets. Before getting
off the ship they agreed on the... Mayflower Compact.
The first governing document
in the new world. So, the colonies do their thing, making money, fighting those pesky folk who were already here, having religious differences (think your first essay),
while back across the pond The Enlightenment,
"Lets all think for ourselves" John Locke
Right to rule comes from the people,
natural rights=life, liberty, property.
Social contract=People obey rules, government
can be overthrown if they violate natural rights. In Switzerland, Rousseau...
puts forth the idea that government should be formed by the consent of people who make their own laws. Montesquieu,
Separation of powers, which would
lead to our Executive, Legislative and
Judicial branches of government. And in France... All of
these
Enlightenment
Ideas would
influence
who? The Founding Fathers and specifically
Thomas Jefferson when he wrote what? But what would lead to such a radical declaration? Remember the "give and take" between the colonists and the British.
Brits felt that the colonists should help pay for the French and Indian War so they taxed the colonists, the colonists found way around the taxes so the Brits came up with new taxes. One of the worst taxes was the Stamp Act, which did what? taxed virtually all paper goods and led too:
1. A boycott of all British goods
2. Terrorizing tax collectors
3. Forming of terrorist groups...Like what? RIGHT!
The "sons of liberty"

It also led to what catch phrase?? NO TAXATION WITHOUT
REPRESENTATION! So after a massacre and a tea party in Boston and a bunch of other stuff, declaring independence was just what? RIGHT!
"Common sense"
That book by Thomas Paine that also
heavily influenced the Founding Fathers So on July 4th 1776 the Declaration of Independence was issued;
Borrowing from British (and other) writers, it listed reasons for breaking from Great Britain and would also inspire other nations to seek
independence. There was a little war, called the American Revolution...
which we won by the way!

And the question became: Now that we have our own country...
...what the hell do we do with it? Afghanistan
Pair-share Common sense Jamestown Stamp Act Mayflower Compact Joint Stock Company House of
Burgesses Anyway,
How do we run
our new country? What was our first shot at a
Government after gaining
independence in 1783 with
the treaty of Paris? Correct, learning has occurred,
The Articles of Confederation. Adopted in 1781,
Main accomplishment was
the Northwest Ordinance Powers of National Government
-declare war
-negotiate treaties
-manage foreign affairs
-coin money
-establish postal system
-establish military Limits of National Government
-no power to enforce laws
-no power to tax
-no national court system to settle disputes between the states
-no power to regulate trade or put tariffs on foreign goods Basically the Articles of Confederation were so weak that instead of being rewritten they were scrapped and a convention was formed to come up with something better, this was called the WHAT? convention? Yep, the Constitutional Convention.
Where the main question was what? Representation. New
Jersey
Plan All States would have equal representation,
favored small states. Virginia Plan Representation based on population, thus
favoring larger states. Connecticut
Compromise Otherwise known as the
"Great compromise"... Which gave us a bicameral legislature with
equal representation in the Senate (2 per state)
and congressmen based on state population. *Philadelphia The new constitution called for a stronger
federal government that the Articles of Confederation as well as checks and balances
provided by the three branches of government.

But now it had to be ratified..... At the heart of the the ratification debate was
who should have more power, the federal govt, or state govt's

Were we the:
United States of AMERICA
or the
United STATES of America Those who supported the Constitution as it was written
were know as who?
Led by Alexander Hamilton Federalists,
Made their case in the "federalist papers"
Were large land owners,
wealthy merchants,
aristocrats.

Strong national government On the other side were the????? Anti-Federalists,
Led by ? ? Thomas Jefferson Small farmers,
shopkeepers,
laborers.

Called for strong state
governments
and felt that the
Constitution did not
protect what? Individual rights,
So the major accomplishment
of the Anit-Federalists
was the addition of the
"Bill of Rights"
to the Constitution 1st 10 Amendments
to the Constitution BILL OF RIGHTS Freedom of, Religion, speech, press
assembly, petition. Article 2 and 3
protect against standing
armies Unreasonable search and seizure 5,6,7 and 8 deal with legal issues,
Rights of the accused,
fair and speedy trial and
trial by a jury and no
cruel and unusual punishment. Reserves power to the people Reserves power to
the States So with the addition of the
Bill of Rights,
the Constitution was ratified
and became the law of the land
in 1787. It also established a relationship
between State and Federal governments.
This relationship is known as ? ? Federalism.

But there were still
arguments over how to interpret
the Constitution. Should the Constitution be taken at face
value and interpreted strictly?
Or, under the "necessary and proper" clause
should it be interpreted broadly/loosely?

And which institution was at the heart of this debate? The 1st National Bank So we're getting there as a country but the
Judicial Branch is feeling left out so they
have to flex their muscle. So the very first supreme
court case, "Marbury V
Madison", establishes what? Judicial review ! Israel
Pair-share Anti-Federalists Bill of Rights Great compromise Articles of Confederation U.S. Constitution Strict or Broad/loose interpretation of the Constitution Marbury V Madison Now that we kind of have things figured out,
it's time to expand...West
It's as if we were destined to do so...it was our? Manifest Destiny ! The biggest problem with adding new territories
was how to keep the balance of power between what?? Slave States,
and Free States. This led to a couple of compromises. Missouri Was Admitted to the Union as
a slave state,
while Maine Was admitted as a free state,
Thus maintaining a balance
of power.
Also the 36-30 parallel
was established as the north-south
line for slavery. As the U.S. continued to push west
there was also a war with who? Mexico After a decisive U.S. victory,
and the treaty of
Guadalupe-Hidalgo,
the U.S. gained much of the
current Southwest.
Including ? California,
Where gold was discovered
at Sutters Mill in 1848 So there was a rush
to add California as
a State.
This led to the Compromise of
??? The Compromise of 1850

California admitted as a free state,

The rest of the SW would not have restrictions on slavery,

Congress would not interfere with the
domestic slave trade, and

The fugitive slave act was passed. 1854 Kansas/Nebraska act Nebraska Admitted as a free state Kansas Admitted as a slave state,
this violated the Missouri
Compromise and led to
Boarder ruffians and "Bleeding
Kansas" As it was determined that
Popular sovereignty
would determine if future
states would be free or slave. So with these compromises, along with
events like the Dred Scott decision and
John Browns raid on Harpers Ferry,
The stage was set for what ? ? The Civil War Costliest War in U.S. history,
600,000 Americans died. Started over states rights
but with the issuance of what?
It became about Freeing the slaves. Lincoln's
Emancipation
Proclamation. So the Civil War happened,
Just trust me the North won
and we entered the
Reconstruction period,
Were the main question was
what? Just what do we do with
all the newly emancipated
African Americans? Although African Americans were now
"Free". They were still kept in economic slavery
by what system? Sharecropping Segregation was widely practiced
and African Americans were kept
in a semi-free status by black codes
and later Jim Crow laws. African Americans were kept from voting
by who? These idiots And it would be many decades
until they could wield any real
political power. During reconstruction, there were
three amendments passed, what were they? Reconstruction Amendments
13th-Freed the slave
14th-granted citizenship
15th-allowed the vote Remember that Southern
states eventually had to ratify
the 14th Amendment to be allowed
back into the Union.
And "reconstruction" ended when
? ? Northern armies left the South,
ending military reconstruction
and the Reconstruction period. India
Pair-Share Segregation was even later
given legal backing, by what case? Plessy V
Ferguson "Yeah (African-Americans)
You and be equal...but do it over
there. And we certainly don't
need to coexist or intermingle." Judicial Review Reconstruction Amendments Plessy V.
Ferguson Carpet-baggers Scalawags federalism Reconstruction Black Codes So coming out of reconstruction,
the U.S. entered what "era" or "age"
that would build a "Modern America" ? The Industrial age Late 1800's America industry
was characterized by a
Laissez-Faire attitude,

Meaning what ? A hands off
approach to
business little or no govt
regulation/involvement Supply and demand
would dictate the markets What would become the dominant
industry that would connect America
as never before? The railroads Big business came to be characterized by
"Captains of Industry" or "Robber Barrons" like... Andrew Carnegie-U.S. Steel
&
J.D. Rockefeller-Standard Oil Moreso than at any time in our past
Capitalism ($) was king. And in response to poor working conditions
and low wages as the industrial tycoons
made more and more money,
workers attempted to what
? ? ? Unionize During the late 1800's labor relations were
for the most part characterized by strikes that
often turned violent. During the industrial age it was big business that had the upper hand and unionized workers faced
many problems. And while quality of life across the board
was improving, most industrial workers faced extremely low wages and terrible working conditions. Corruption was evident at all levels
and led to the rise of what?
that ran many large cities. Political Machines... Who were able to gain popular support by
bribing local officials and exploiting immigrants. Specifically the "Undesirable" or "New Immigrants" from Southern and Eastern Europe.

One strike, more than any other summed up
the violent labor relations of the late 1800's
What was it? Thailand
Pair-share Skilled laborers despised unskilled workers,
Religious, ethnic and class distinctions posed problems and many times Unions were seen as "Un-American". Labor Struggles The Pullman Rail Car Strike The Federal government
became involved to break up the
strike based on the fact that it
interfered with
interstate
commerce.

(Mail car) Unions Pullman Strike Old vs New immigrants Political machines Knights of Labor The Industrial age was also
known by another name,
What was it? As the seedy underbelly of America during the Gilded age came to light, we would be pushed
toward the Progressive era... One group more than any other pushed us
toward the reforms of the Progressive Era,
Who were they? Muckrackers

Jacob Riis-"How the other half lives"-
Slums/living conditions

Upton Sinclair-"The Jungle"-Food sanitation/immigrants lives

Thomas Nast-Political cartoonist-
Corruprtion/political machines

Ida Tarbell-"History of Standard Oil"-
Big business During the same time period,
late 1800's, America is looking to
expand further West.

We've achieved Manifest Destiny and
now look to continue Westward.

American Imperialism!

American Expansion
or Imperialism would do
a number of things for
the emerging nation... Provide naval bases Provide new markets Bring civilization to the
rest of the world
(White mans burden) In short, many felt that to be a
truly great nation,
America needed an Empire. More so than anyone else, there
was one guy who represented
this idea, who was he? Alfred T. Mahan,

who as well as agreeing with
the ideas we just talked about,
strongly supported the building
of what?? The Panama Canal In order to gain access to the "canal zone"
the U.S. supported a Panamanian uprising
and the creation of a new country..Panama.

Based on which document was the U.S. able to do this? The Roosevelt Corollary

which gave teeth to the
Monroe Doctrine and
allowed the U.S. to act as
the "policemen" of
Latin America As a part of our expansionist
policy we really needed a war to
show the rest of the world that
we were a legitimate power.

This came in the form of a
"Splendid little war"
against whom
? ? Spain,

The Spanish-
American War Spain was a dying Empire and posed
no real threat or interference with
American trade, but by supporting an
independence movement in... Cuba The U.S. was continuing to enforce the
Monroe Doctrine with the use of the
Roosevelt Corollary. Havana * In Havana Harbor, the sinking of
The U.S.S. Maine was fueled by
Yellow Journalism:
"Remember the Maine, to hell with Spain"

and provided to spark to go to war. Out of the Spanish-American War
we gained, an empire and the question became,
how do we deal with each new territory? Hawaii would
eventually
become a
State, Guam would become an
American protectorate The Philippines After a brief rebellion against
American rule, would become a U.S.
territory and eventually gain
independence. Under both the Platt & Teller Amendments
Cuba gained independence and was allowed
to establish their own constitution...
with U.S. oversight of course. Libya
Pair-Share Alfred T Mahan Platt Amendment Teller Amendment Roosevelt Corollary Muckrakers Yellow press The turn of the Century (1900)
ushers in the Progressive Era Election of 1900,
McKinley is elected president
but soon dies in office,
opening the door for who to become
President?
? ? He of speaking softly and carrying a big stick,
quickly gains what nick name as he takes
big business? ? In attacking big business,
Roosevelt uses the Sherman
Anti-trust act as it was intended
to support his feeling that...? Good trusts should be regulated and
bad trusts should be broken up.

This idea was the basis for
Roosevelt's "New......?" New-Nationalism.

Which called for cooperation between
big government and big business. Other Progressive Era reforms
included: Passage of the
Pure Food and
Drug Act. The New lands
Reclamation act
which helped establish
National Parks... The Federal Trade Commission

which regulated American business
and had the authority to issue "cease
and desist" orders for unfair practices. The Federal Reserve was also created to help reform the banks.
and..... Tariffs were lowered to
help foster competition. And finally there were the
"Progressive Amendments"
PROGRESSIVE AMENDMENTS
16th-Income Tax
17th-Direct election of Senators
18th-Prohibition of Alcohol
19th-Woman's suffrage Progressive Era Reforms Heading into WW 1 Europe's alliance system,
and jingoism led to the
assassination of Arch-Duke
Franz-Ferdinand's
being the spark that
set off the powder keg. But in the U.S. what convinced Americans that
Germany was plotting against them, and ultimately pushed the U.S. into war? ?

It wasn't the sinking of the Lusitania The Zimmerman
Telegram Germany's attempt to get Mexico
to join the war against the U.S.
and in return they (Mexico) would recover
territories lost during the Mexican-American
War. *Versailles World War One would end
with the treaty of....? Which was mostly punitive in
nature towards Germany.

Much of Europe lay in ruins and
Germany was on the hook

But at home we had our own set
of problems. In the U.S. immediately following the
War and specifically the summer of 1919
there were large scale race riots, labor
strikes and even bomb scares as the
economy shrunk and returning service
men had to compete for jobs and housing. Adopted as a part of the
Treaty of Versailles was the last of
whose "14 Points" ? ? U.S. President, Woodrow Wilson.

And what was that 14th Point? The league of Nations.

Adopted in Europe, but not
in the U.S.

WHY? ? A fear of foreign entangling alliances From Washington's farewell address,
The U.S. did not want to have to commit
to another European war. But after this short period of unrest
we entered what age?
The roaring 20's Australia
Pair-Share New-Nationalism Sherman Anti-Trust Election of 1912 14 Points Progressive Amendments League
of
Nations Zimmerman
Telegram Underwood
Tariff But,
Back to the
Roaring 20's...
Full transcript