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Transcript of Westward Expansion
Where: All of America, esp. the east As the United States grew in size and power, it began to attract those living in other countries, especially Europe. Large tracts of relatively cheap, empty land were appealing to poor families who couldn't afford the price of living in their home countries. As immigrants poured into the eastern seaboard, large cities such as New York became packed and immigrants were forced to move to the west, which soon became a bustling agricultural society. Immigration promoted movement to the west and expansion. Native American Culture Oregon Trail Trail of Tears Corps of Discovery Social: Destruction of
American Culture When: 1803-1848
Where: Oklahoma (Native Reservation) Dating back to the first English settlement on Native American land, the Native American races were seen as inferior to all Caucasian races. This view had not changed by the 1800s, and Americans were still treating Natives like lesser creatures. Ignoring the fact that North American land had belonged to the Natives first, the Americans created laws to coerce Natives Americans into giving up their ancestral lands. Americans herded the Natives into reservations that they had laid out, while forcing the Natives to assimilate to American culture. With the lack of their ancestral homes and traditions, the Native American culture was thoroughly destroyed. This encouraged expansion for Americans, but limited the lands that Natives could expand to. Louisiana Purchase Texas Annexation Mexican Cession English Cession Mexican American War Social: Trail of Tears When: 1830-1838
Where: A trail running from Georgia/Tennessee through Illinois, Missouri, and ending in Georgia.
The Market Revolution was a period of industrialization in America. Transportation was improved greatly by the creation and development of roads and canals. In addition, there were many inventions that made labor easier and less time consuming. For example, Eli Whitney’s cotton gin made the textile industry more efficient. Inventions such as this made working in a factory simpler and created a plethora of job openings in northeastern America. In order to fill all these jobs, lower class citizens began working and earning. Immigrants also filled these jobs, adding to the foreign appeal of America. The Market Revolution did not promote expansion, because it drew lower class citizens and immigrants into cities, which were generally clustered on the northeastern seaboard. Economic: Market Revolution When: 1790-1860
Where: North When gold was first found in 1848 in Sutter’s Mill, California, many people from Oregon, Hawaii, and Latin America flocked to California, determined to become wealthy. As news of the gold abundance spread, approximately 300,000 people came to California by way of the California and Gila River Trails. Majority of miners brought their families along, who proceeded to settle in the area and were called the Forty-Niners. Many of them did find gold, but majority failed and made a living from selling mining tools. This however, did not stop the eager individuals from traveling to California. Due to the continuing rise of people in this area, towns and cities were constructed, promoting expansion. Economic: California Gold Rush When: 1848-1855
Where: California The Homestead Acts were a series of acts signed by Abraham Lincoln in 1862. The acts granted an applicant over 160 acres of land, called a homestead, in the Western territories for little or no cost. Anyone over 21 years of age, including women and free blacks, could apply for a homestead as long as he or she had never threatened the federal government. The Enlarged Homestead Act and the Stock Raising Homestead Act progressively enlarged the size of the land tract to 640 acres, making the Western land even more attractive. Due to this, expansion boomed in the mid 1800s. Economic: The Homestead Act When: 1862
Where: West The American System was an economic plan proposed by Henry Clay during the Era of Good Feelings in order to strengthen and unify the nation. His plan had three components: to charter a national bank, to impose protective tariffs, and to create an improved infrastructure. Clay’s American System was executed and because of it, there was a charter for the Second US Bank, the national road was constructed, and the Tariff of 1816 was passed. The national railroad made traveling to the West much easier and cheaper, thereby promoting expansion. Economic: The American System When: 1815-1825
Where: When Andrew Jackson took office, the Native Americans had already been pushed out of some of their lands. He took the final step in removing them with the Indian Removal Act of 1830. This act authorized Jackson to "negotiate" with the Natives for their homeland and relocation to territory west of the Mississippi River. The Five Civilized Tribes, as they were called, were mostly pressured into consenting with Jackson. These tribes were the Choctaw, Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, and Chickasaw. Again, the Trail of Tears opened up lands for Americans to expand to, but limited the area that Natives could prosper in. This promoted expansion. Social: The Oregon Trail Panic of 1819 Market
Revolution Gold Rush American System When: 1811-1863
Where: Missouri, Nebraska, Kansas, Wyoming, Idaho, Oregon First created by fur trappers to trade with Northwestern settlements, the Oregon trail was used by many emigrants to reach new western lands. In the Great Migration of 1843, almost a thousand emigrants left their homes for Oregon. This migration established a fully passable wagon route for migrants to take, thus leading to easier travel and an increase in westward expansion. Social: The Corps of Discovery When: 1804-1806
Where: Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska, South/North Dakota, Montana, Idaho, Oregon, Washington The Corps of Discovery are the group who went on an expedition through the continental divide to the Pacific Ocean in order to explore the land acquired by the Louisiana Purchase. Commissioned by former President Thomas Jefferson and headed by Merriweather Lewis and William Clark, the expedition found and recorded geographical, anthropological, and natural information. This expedition aided expansion because it allowed emigrants to have some sort of idea of the areas they were settling, thus allowing them to be more comfortable with traveling to the previously uncharted West. The Louisiana Purchase was the first major expansion of the Continental U.S. The territory was purchased from Napoleon Bonaparte, emperor of France at the time. Some say that the purchase was pure luck; if Napoleon had not desperately needed funding for his war against Britain, he may never have sold the Louisiana Purchase for the astonishingly low price of fifteen million dollars, or, by a measure of today's money, for forty two cents per acre. Included in the Louisiana Territory was the major port of New Orleans, which greatly aided American trading. The staggering amount of new land promoted expansion. Political: Louisiana Purchase When: 1803
Where: Louisiana Territory Prior to the Mexican Cession, present day California, Nevada, and Arizona all belonged to Mexico. The land was given to America as a component of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which ended the Mexican-American War. The treaty called for America to pay Mexico fifteen million dollars and pay off claims of American citizens against Mexico, while also giving them this land. In effect, America paid about eighteen million dollars for this land tract. The original deal was that the US would pay thirty million, but the price was lowered when Mexico was apprehensive to sign off the land. It expanded the United States greatly. Political: Mexican Cession When: 1848
Where: Present day southwestern United States In 1845, the United States annexed the Republic of Texas. With the annexation of the former country, the United States had to deal with Texas's border disputes with Mexico. Mexicans were adamant that the area comprising Texas still belonged to them, with the borders of Texas cutting much further into American territory than the Americans believed (making the state of Texas smaller than expected). The annexation of Texas was one of the main factors in the eruption of the Mexican American war, but helped to promote expansion by providing new, American settled lands for farmers. Political: Texas Annexation When: 1845
Where: Texas (claimed and unclaimed territories)
The Mexican American War was caused by the annexation of Texas, the border dispute, and manifest destiny. Mexicans believed that Texas was still theirs because Santa Anna’s signing of the Texas’ Independence Declaration was without the consent of the Mexican Congress. Also, Americans wanted the border of Texas to be the Rio Grande while Mexicans want it to be the Nueces River. This war discouraged expansion. Political: Mexican American War When: 1846-1848
Where: Along the border between Texas and Mexico 4 Britain and the United States signed the Treaty of 1818 which resolved the border disputes between British Canada and the Oregon territory. It was decided that the border would be the 49th parallel. Britain would retain the land it had owned that was north of the parallel and the US would keep its lands in the south which is now present day Washington and Oregon. This was the last piece of land that Great Britain lost to another country. Political: English Cession When: 1818
Where: Present day Oregon and Washington Economical: Panic of 1819 When: 1819
Where: All throughout America The Panic of 1819 was America’s first major financial crisis, caused by a collapse in the prices of cotton. Due to this, many banks failed, and many farms foreclosed. People lost all they had: houses, farms, businesses and money. Many decided to move West because they had nothing left in the North/South. THE END YAY