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English Civil War and the Rise of Democracy
Transcript of English Civil War and the Rise of Democracy
The Rise of Democracy
By: Nikta Arianpour
1215: the Magna Carta
1625-1628: Charles I Rules Without Parliament
1628: Petition of Right
1640-1653: The Long Parliament
1628: Charles I Recalls Parliament
1642-1649: The Civil War
Great charter promising certain civil rights to the English people
Signed by King John in 1215
Obliged king John to grant concessions to parliament
Charter stated for the king to rule "lawfully"
King could not give new tax without parliament's consent
People accused of crimes were guaranteed the right to trial by jury of peers
One of the most important events leading to democracy
Mostly beneficial for the noble and upperclassmen (and parliament)
Required king to consult with elected parliament
Recognized individual rights and freedoms
King Charles I believed in Divine Right of Kings
Had an extravagant lifestyle (loved owning art and possessions) always looking for $$$$
Relied on the consultation of the Duke of Buckingham (always made trouble & despised by citizens and parliament )
Never consulted parliament for any decisions but always asked them for money when he needed it
Parliament disliked duke of Buckingham and Charles' way of ruling so they didn't give him money
Charles then dismissed parliament and ruled without it for 11 years
He always needed money to support his extravagant lifestyle
Dismissed parliament and collected extra shipping money/taxes from the people, when they disagreed to give him money
Searched for ways to rule without the parliament
Succeed to do so for 11 years
Finally when he needed more money, he recalled the parliament; hoping to be in more agreeable terms
Parliament told the king, it would not provide any money, until he ceased illegal activities and sign the "petition of rights"
King disagreed, dissolved parliament again and resolved to rule without it
This led to the English civil war between Round heads (parliament) and Cavaliers (Charles' supporters)
Was issued when Charles I recalled parliament in 1628,
Parliament told him to sign the "Petition of Right"
Includes limitation of non-parliament taxing
Forced the billeting of soldiers
Banned imprisoning without cause and forced loans
Restricting the use of material law
Refers to the Magna Carta
Mentions King's wrong doings (i.e. habeus corpus)
Charles tried to force Scots to worship in the style of the church of England
Presbyterian Scots signed cove to resist the demand and revolted
Charles needed money to fight back so he called parliament
the "short parliament" sympathized with the Scots 1640
Charles shut it down and blindly chose another parliament ("the long parliament"); which was even more unfriendly
Long parliament lasted 13 years
Commanded Stafford and Laud to be removed and punished
Wanted Charles I removed form absolute power
Passed remonstrance limiting king's powers to remove rights
The "prerogative" king had right to act outside law
People supported king's rights vs. parliament
Started when Charles raised standards on the fight with Scots & lasted for 7 years
War between Cavaliers (king Charles' supporters) who were mostly made of noble men & used to fighting (wore long curly hair with "fancy hats")
Vs. the Round heads (parliament men; working under Oliver Cromwell.) who were mostly made up of farmers and wore round hats with short hair; and the Scots
Parliament made an alliance with Scots to create New model army leader of new model army was Oliver Cromwell (believed solely in parliament's cause)
New model army defeated Royalists at 2 major battles Marston Moor and Naseby
Charles fled to Scotland and was handed over to parliament
1603-1625: James I Rules
1642-1653: Pride's Purge & the Rump Parliament
1649: Trial of Charles
1653- 1658: Lord Protector: Cromwell
1660-1685: The Restoration Under Charles II
1673: Test Act
1685-1688: James II Rules
1688: The Glorious Revolution
1689: Bill of Rights
Was king James VI of Scotland 20 years before becoming king James I of England
Introduced the idea of Divine Right of Kings
Didn't make a good impression on subjects
Created king James version of Bible
allied with the church of England
"Absolute Monarch" not democratic
Selected lacking people as advisers & gave them titles ; This act angered the nobles
Tried to find sources of money without consulting parliament
Parliament always resisted him
They suggested more tax money in exchange for more power for the parliament
Died in 1625 & left behind a divided nation
Came into power in 1645 &became known as Commonwealth
Strictly puritan officer who banned fun events in the country and believed in the simplest way of living from the Bible
Made the country a republic face on coins
People recognized his strong military leadership
Reorganized and trained parliament's army (New Model Army)
Defeated royalists and captured Charles I
England became a republic under Cromwell
In 1649 Cromwell laid siege to Drogheda (Irish city) to kill more Catholics
Tolerated protestants but not Catholics
England religiously divided
Parliament split and Cromwell dissolved in it in 1615
Hired group of advisers but dissolved them when proved to be usless then chose to rule alone
Got the title "Lord Protector"
Was an Honest man told the artist to draw him truly as he is "warts and everything"
Kings and Queens of England
After Cromwell's death in Sept 3rd 1658, his son came into power & proved to be incapable therefore he resigned form his position
The people of England now longed for the monarchy, they wanted a parliament that protected their rights
And were not happy with their joyless life under strict laws, thus the monarchy was restored and people rejoiced
However the king now ruled under a constitutional monarchy
Charles II accepted, though he planned to regain power secretly (never succeeded)
Charles II made sure to have supporter in parliament by influencing who was elected (royal supporters= Tories)
Charles II was a fun-loving person and soon changed the puritan blue laws
The regicides/traitors were severely punished and displayed around England as a warning
Charles was not able to protect catholic freedom
He was succeeded by James II after death
Video ,Picture and Information (1 information source) Bibliography
Horrible Histories Oliver Cromwells Wart. Prod. Horrible Histories. Youtube. N.p., 9 Apr. 2012. Web. 6 Mar. 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=b-N44WIyPjI>.
Oliver Cromwell Biography. By TheCloudBiography. Youtube. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Mar.
1642, during Civil war, many members of the parliament left to fight for the king (Cavaliers)
Leaving parliament in hands of Presbyterians and Puritans who disagreed on important matters
Presbyterians didn't hate the idea of Charles I returning if he agreed to limited power but puritans were republican and wanted the monarchy gone
Rebellions broke out in support of the king
Parliamentary army sent colonel Pride to drive 143 Presbyterians out of parliament
Out of the whole parliament, 41 people were seized and imprisoned, 160 were commanded to go home
60 remained ( rump of the whole house) left by "Pride's Purge"
Their first case was the trial of Charles I
When Charles II tried to protect freedom of Catholics, parliament passed document called the Test Act; making Church of England supreme
This act banned anyone except members of the Church of England from holding political office or professions
Also forbade Catholics form going into professions or holding political power
James II (Charles II 's brother) was a catholic and had to give up his position as high admiral
The Test Act also hinted the superiority of the power of parliament over power of the king
Horrible Histories - Kings and Queens Song (lyrics, portraits, dates). Prod.
DefaultUser471225's channel. Youtube. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Mar. 2013.
"Oliver Cromwell." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 3 June 2012. Web. 6 Mar. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oliver_Cromwell>.
"1653 - Oliver Cromwell: Lord Protector SOLD." P&D Medallions - British, European, Foreign and Worldwide Medals and Medallions -. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Mar. 2013. <http://pdmedallions.co.uk/Commerce/product_info.php?cPath=26>.
Butler, John. "James 1 of England (1566-1625)." The Life of King James 1 of England . N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Mar 2010. <http://www.luminarium.org/sevenlit/james/jamesbio.htm>.
James II Was Charles II 's brother
Came into power when Charles died in 1685
Was Catholic (Anti- Catholic feeling very high in England)
gave high offices to Catholics despite the Test Act
Had intention of returning England to Catholic state
Believed in the Divine Right of Kings and meant to take parliament's power away
Parliament called James II 's protestant daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange to rule (signed the Bill of Rights)
They agreed and James left England, "abdicating" his throne
States one of parliaments major complaints against Charles I
Charles resolved parliament again and managed to rule without it
The Civil War led by the Round heads and Cavaliers ended after King Charles was captured by the Scots and handed over to the parliament
Finally, parliament charged Charles with treason!
How can the king overthrow/ plot against himself?
Was executed in January 1649
On the day of execution, Charles wore 2 shirts and ate a full breakfast
So that he wouldn't shiver from the cold or look faint from hunger causing his foes to think he was afraid
Was led to scaffold, gave a short speech, and was executed
People didn't like James II because he was catholic and most of the English Population were Protestants by then
He also believed in the Divine right of kings and wanted to take power away from the parliament
The parliament leader called James II 's daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange to become king and Queen of England
They Agreed and also signed the Bill of Rights
James' supporters fled from England and after sometime so did James; leaving his throne
This became known as the Glorious Revolution
First time that the monarch was chosen by parliament not hereditary right
The Divine Right of Kings was DEAD!
"An Act Declaring the Rights and Liberties of the Subject and Settling the Succession of the Crown"
Limited power of monarchs hugely
A document, that clearly declared that the parliament was the real government (emphasizing English constitutional law)
Was signed by Marry II and William of Orange a year after Glorious Revolution
forms basis of Canadian rights
Gave subjects right to petition the king
Suggested the idea of elected parliament
Gave citizens right to bear arms for self defense
Gave parliament freedom of speech
Stated that parliament should be held frequently
Banned excessive fines,punishments and/or bail
Specific acts of James II were named and stated illegal
The bill was later added to act of settlement in 1701
majorly contributed to the evolution of parliamentary supremacy
largely settled religious conflict between Scotland, England and Ireland in 17th century
Kids.Net.Au, Nathan Rose. "English Bill of Rights." Kids.Net.Au. Nathan Rose, 2003. Web. 7 Mar. 2013. <http://encyclopedia.kids.net.au/page/en/
In a part of his speech, Charles said : "By what authority am I here? I mean lawful authority, for there are many unlawful authorities in the world- thieves and robbers by the highways. remember, I am your lawful king: let me know by what lawful authority I am seated here... and you shall hear more from me."
At this time, the parliament also believed that Henrietta Maria (Charles' French Catholic) wife, had too much influence on his bad decision making
Easom, Sandra. Newmarket Racecoursesthe Home of Racing. Digital image. James I Discovers Newmarket at Newmarket Racecourses. The Home of Racing, 2007. Web. 08 Mar. 2013.http://www.newmarketracecourses.co.uk/about-the-home-of-racing/newmarket-history/james-i-discovers-newmarket/
Trial of Charles
Somebody Like Me. Digital image. Â» The Trial of the King. Somebody Like Me, 17 Jan. 2012. Web. 08 Mar. 2013.
King John signing the Magna Carta
Magna Carta Document
Huerta, Mrs. Medievaltext6. Digital image. Medievaltext6. Mrs. Huerta, n.d. Web. 08 Mar. 2013.
Monthly Archives: April 2012. Digital image. Engage History. Historacle, 7 Apr. 2012. Web. 08 Mar. 2013.http://engagehistory.wordpress.com/2012/04/
Aurthor. Cavalier. Digital image. ARTHUR'S UNITED KINGDOM CLIPART. Aurthor, 2007. Web.http://www.arthursclipart.org/england/england/page_01.htm
forcing the Scots to worship the style of the church of England
Horrible Histories-Scottish Puritans. Youtube. N.p., 21 May 2011. Web. 8 Mar. 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/